(1.河北科技大学 食品与生物学院, 河北 石家庄 050018;2.君乐宝乳业集团有限公司, 河北 石家庄 050221)
(1.College of Food and Biology, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018, China;2.Junlebao Dairy Group Co Ltd, Shijiazhuang 050221, China)
食物中含有的胆碱、左旋肉碱、甜菜碱等物质在肠道菌群的作用下可转化为三甲胺(trimethylamine, TMA)。TMA极易被肠道上皮细胞吸收,通过门静脉循环被转运至肝脏后氧化为氧化三甲胺(trimethylamine-N-oxide, TMAO),血浆中TMAO的水平与人体心血管疾病的发生发展密切相关。因此,肠源性TMA被认为是一种心血管疾病的风险标志。TMA作为肠道菌群的一种代谢产物,将饮食、肠道菌群、心血管疾病三者有机地联系到了一起,为通过饮食和肠道菌群预防和治疗心血管疾病,提供了新的靶点；心血管疾病严重危害人类健康,通过对肠源性TMA生成机制及其饮食调控的分析,可为控制肠源性TMA、降低心血管疾病发生提供参考。阐述了肠源性TMA前体物质的食物来源、参与TMA生成的肠道微生物,系统阐释了TMA在人体内的代谢途径。针对肠源性TMA的控制,从减少食物中TMA前体物质摄入、降低产生TMA肠道菌群的比例、抑制产生TMA的酶类以及干预TMA分子合成途径等方面分别总结了肠源性TMA的控制策略。针对具有良好应用前景的益生菌和古菌干预策略,归纳和分析了目前益生菌和古菌对TMA影响的研究成果,为预防心血管疾病提供可能的方向。
Substances such as choline, L-carnitine, and betaine contained in food can be converted into trimethylamine (TMA) under the action of gut microbiota. TMA can be easily absorbed by intestinal epithelial cells, transported to the liver through the portal circulation and then oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). The level of TMAO in plasma is closely related to the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases in humans. Therefore, gut-derived TMA is considered as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. TMA is a metabolite of gut microbiota that get diet, gut microbiota, and cardiovascular disease closely linked, it provides a new target for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease through diet and gut microbiota. Cardiovascular disease is considered to be a serious threat to human health, and analysis of the generation mechanism and influencing factors of gut-derived TMA could provide a reference for controlling gut-derived TMA and reducing cardiovascular disease incidence. The food sources of gut-derived TMA precursors and the gut microbes involved in the generation of TMA were described, and the metabolic pathways of TMA in body were systematically explained. For the control of gut-derived TMA, the aspects of reducing the intake of TMA precursors in food, reducing the proportion of gut microbiota that produce TMA, inhibiting TMA-producing enzymes, and intervening in the synthesis of gut-derived TMA were summarized. According to the probiotics and archaea intervention strategies with good application prospects, the current research results on the effects of probiotics and archaea on TMA were summarized, which provided possible directions for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.