• 《食品科学技术学报》获评“RCCSE中国权威学术期刊(A+)”
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    Volume ,2024 Issue 1
      Special Edition
    • WANG Yanbo, ZHANG Yunzhen, LI Wenlu, ZENG Hong

      2024(1):1-9, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202400033

      Abstract:

      Plant-based foods play a vital role in a healthy dietary structure for residents and serve as significant sources of the three major nutrients, dietary fiber, various vitamins, and minerals. With the improvement of living standards, people's pursuit of food has upgraded from “filling” to “eating well”. Accordingly, the flavor of foods (including plant-based foods) has become a key factor affecting consumer preferences. Especially, the concept of “biological flavor formation” under the action of biological media such as enzymes and microorganisms is gaining more and more attention and recognition from consumers. Food flavor produced by biological media such as enzymes and microorganisms is in line with consumers' expectation of natural, safe, non-additive or less additive food, so it is increasingly favored. Therefore, it is of great significance to understand the biological flavor formation mechanisms of plant-based foods systematically and comprehensively during growth, maturation, and processing, which contribute to flavor improvement and value enhancement of plant-based foods. By focusing on plant-based foods, the composition and flavor characteristics of key flavor substances based on the structural characteristics of flavor substances in plant-based foods, such as fatty compounds, aromatic compounds, heterocyclic compounds, and terpenes was systematically introduced. Furthermore, the biological flavor formation mechanism and recent advances of plant-based foods from both endogenous and exogenous perspectives at the molecular level were elaborated. Endogenous biological flavor formation primarily involved in the natural generation of characteristic flavor substances in plant-based foods through carbohydrate pathways, protein pathways, fatty acid pathways, and terpene pathways catalyzed by endogenous enzymes. Exogenous biological flavor formation relied on added enzymes or microorganisms to achieve the targeted synthesis of desired flavor compounds or the inhibition of undesirable flavor compounds through bio-catalysis and fermentation techniques. In the future, with the combination of multi-omics technology and interdisciplinary approaches, a deeper understanding of the biosynthetic pathways, regulatory mechanisms, and interactions of flavor substances in plant-based foods will be achieved. This will provide a scientific basis for product improvement and innovation in the food industry, facilitating the development and industrial-scale production of new products.

    • 青年视点
    • WU Xiaomeng, LI Xiang, LIU Nan, CHU Zejun, SHEN Qun, HU Xiaosong

      2024(1):10-19, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202300742

      Abstract:

      The catering plays an important role in China's economy and society. With the development of society and the application of artificial intelligence, catering is evolving in the direction of diversification, specialization and intelligence. The development of China's catering industry was reviewed. The connotation and extension of Smart Catering 4.0 and the trend of new food science and technology and artificial intelligence technology utilized in this field were systematically analyzed. Computer vision combined with deep learning algorithms achieved the quality grading of raw materials. Digital twin technology not only can covert thousands of electronic recipes into process parameters, but also can simulate the cooking skills of culinary masters, put Chinese unique cooking techniques into robot cooking. The application of collaborative filtering recommendation algorithms, natural language processing, and face recognition technologies can quickly identify the customer and make personalized recommendations. This article summarized the current status and main technologies of smart catering, and proposed future directions, namely, focusing on health, basing on deliciousness, and centering on culture, with the aim of providing reference for the further development of the catering industry.

    • LEI Qiao, ZHANG Wenhui

      2024(1):20-31, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202300271

      Abstract:

      Intelligent packaging indicator can provide consumers with effective information such as freshness, safety or environmental conditions (temperature, pH value, gas atmosphere) of packaged food, based on its ability to detect, sense and record changes in product environment, which is an extension of traditional packaging's ability to spread information. It also helps to improve the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and Quality Analysis and Critical Control Point (QACCP) systems, which help to detect unsafe food on site, identify potential health hazards, and develop strategies to reduce or eliminate occurrence of food safety issues. Bio-based intelligent packaging system has attracted much attention because it uses degradable and renewable materials to visually display information related to the quality of packaged food in the supply chain to consumers, which conforms to the needs of circular economy and sustainable development. In this paper, the structural mechanism, functional adaptability types and functions of environment-friendly intelligent packaging indicators (pH sensing, time-temperature sensing and atmosphere sensing, etc.), which used natural pigment (anthocyanins, chlorophyll, curcumin and betalains, etc.) as sensitive element and bio-based polymer (polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and modified cellulose, etc.) as carrier, as well as the new trend and new progress in monitoring food quality, storage and transportation environment, were reviewed.

    • Foundational Research
    • ZHAO Nan, LI Binghuan, SONG Yuning, HAN Zhao, WU Shufen

      2024(1):32-44, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202300141

      Abstract:

      To investigate the binding property between β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and monascus pigments (Mps) under different pH values (2.6,6.2,7.1,8.2), four kinds of complex systems of β-LG and Mps were prepared, and the interactions between them were characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectrum and molecular docking methods. At the same time, the antioxidant activity, thermal stability, and photo-stability of the complex (β-LG&Mps) were also determined. The results showed that the binding of Mps to β-LG could induce fluorescence quenching of β-LG under the experimental pH range. The complex of β-LG and Mps was mainly maintained through Van der Waals force, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds. However, no significant changes were observed in the secondary structures of β-LG. The DPPH free radical scavenging capacity of β-LG&Mps complex was higher than that of either β-LG or Mps, but lower than the sum of the two components, indicating that β- LG and Mps exhibited antagonistic effects on DPPH free radical scavenging. After forming complex with β-LG, compared with uncomplexed Mps, the retention rates of Mps in the complex increased by 58% (pH 6.2), 30% (pH 7.1) and 24% (pH 8.2), respectively, at 50℃. Additionally, the retention rates of Mps in the complex increased by 65% (pH 6.2), 43% (pH 7.1) and 43% (pH 8.2), respectively, under a light intensity of 600 Lux for 36 h at temperature 25℃. β-LG improved the thermal and photo-stability of Mps at pH values 6.2,7.1, and 8.2, however, the thermal stability and photo-stability of Mps were poor under the acidic condition (pH 2.6). The study explored the improvement of the stability of monascus pigment through the interaction of food components, to provide beneficial references for the development of monascus pigment related products.

    • AI Xin, PAN Fei, ZHU Zehui, ZHANG Mingxin, LIU Yaqi, ZHAO Lei, ZHAO Liang

      2024(1):45-56, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202201056

      Abstract:

      Anthocyanin can be used as a natural colorant in food systems such as beverages, but it is susceptible to degradation by ascorbic acid in foods. Chitosan can be added to beverages for thickening and stabilization, but it can have an effect on the stability of anthocyanin. The effect of different concentrations of chitosan on the stability of anthocyanin in a model beverage system was investigated, and the improvement effect of sinapic acid addition on stability of anthocyanin in the presence of chitosan was analysed. The stability of black rice anthocyanin in different systems was analyzed by accelerated storage experiments and degradation kinetic methods, and the mechanism of action of sinapic acid in improving the stability of black rice anthocyanin in chitosan systems was analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations. The results showed that a single chitosan led to a decrease in the color stability of anthocyanin in the 7d accelerated experiment. Sinapic acid significantly improved the color stability and content retention of black rice anthocyanin in chitosan-containing model beverages. Degradation kinetic analysis showed that the addition of sinapic acid in the chitosan experimental group at a chitosan mass concentration of 5 mg/mL increased the half-life t1/2 of the anthocyanin by 2.3 fold and reduced its degradation rate constant K by 0.1523d-1. Molecular dynamics simulation results showed that the presence of free sinapic acid promoted more anthocyanin molecules to approach the chitosan-sinapic acid complex and form a more stable binding. Therefore, the addition of sinapic acid to model beverages containing chitosan could achieve a protective effect on anthocyanins, hoping to provide some theoretical basis for the application of phenolic acid and the optimization of functional chitosan model beverages in the futture.

    • LIU Wenchao, YANG Kai, ZHAO Yuhong

      2024(1):57-68, 105, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200910

      Abstract:

      To study effects of protein-protein interactions on solubility, structure and emulsion properties of pine kernel protein (PKP), PKP and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were used as research objects, and PKP-WPC complex protein was prepared by pH-cycle method. The structure and surface properties of complex protein were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, intrinsic fluorescence spectra, ultraviolet-visible spectra, circular dichroism, fluorescent probe and ζ- potential, and then emulsions with oil phase volume fractions of 3%, 10% and 50% were prepared using PKP-WPC complex protein as material, respectively. Finally, emulsion properties were tested. The results showed that when mass ratio of WPC addition to PKP was 1.0∶1.0 and pH of system went through a pH-cycle from 7.0 to 12.0 and back to 7.0, water solubility of PKP improved from 48.53% to 92.43%. SDS-PAGE results showed that PKP-WPC complex protein completely retained subunits of PKP and WPC. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra, ultraviolet-visible spectra and circular dichroism showed that electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond were major forces driving the interaction between PKP and WPC, and interactions of PKP and WPC endowed complex protein with high structural toughness and resistance to acid-induced conformational folding. The addition of WPC changed secondary structure of PKP, the amount of α-helix, β-turn and random coil structures increased, while relative content of β-sheet structures decreased. PKP-WPC complex protein had higher surface charges (-34.74mV) to resist protein aggregation. Compared with emulsions prepared from PKP, emulsions prepared from PKP-WPC showed reduced mean particle diameter and creaming index, increased absolute value of ζ-potential, and significantly improved stability. Emulsions properties varied considerably depending on oil phase volume fraction. The composite emulsion with 3% oil phase volume fraction had small and uniformly distributed droplets, and its stability was better than composite emulsion with 10% and 50% oil phase volume fraction. The study improved PKP solubility by adding WPC through pH-cycle method, and obtained PKP emulsions with better stability. The study could provide a theoretical basis for the development of new protein products, broaden application of pine kernel protein in processed foods, and promote development of PKP-WPC double protein emulsion research.

    • ZHU Lijie, PAN Yueying, LI Yingyan, ZHOU Yingjie, BAI Xinwen, LIU Xiuying, LIU He

      2024(1):69-82, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202201075

      Abstract:

      Soyasaponins are abundantly present in soybean germ, hypocotyl, and other parts, especially in defatted soybean meal, which can be produced as a high-value-added product to improve the utilization of by-products in soybean oil processing. Soyasaponins belong to pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds and are a type of dammarane-type saponin composed of hydrophobic aglycone and hydrophilic sugar group. They possess certain amphiphilic properties and various physiological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immune-modulating, and hepatoprotective effects. In recent years, the research areas of soyasaponins have been continuously expanded from activity verification to molecular mechanisms, producing a number of forward-looking achievements. Soyasaponins with different structures and types exhibit different physiological activities and mechanisms of action, and related research provided a theoretical basis for the application of soyasaponins in food and medicine. This article focused on the latest research progress on the structure and classification, physiological activities, and structure-activity relationships of soyasaponins, analyzed the influence of processing methods on the structure of soyasaponins, summarized the mechanisms of soyasaponins in exerting physiological activities and their applications based on physiological activities, and illustrated the problems that need to be addressed in the future application of soyasaponins, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for further research and development of soyasaponins.

    • LI Xing, WU Liling, PEI Ronghong, ZHU Lin, ZHENG Fuping, SUN Jinyuan, LI Fan, LI Yi, SUN Baoguo

      2024(1):83-93, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200892

      Abstract:

      Volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSCs) have the characteristics of intensive aromas and low thresholds, which have important impacts on the flavor of foods. However, concentrations of most VSCs in food are below the detection limit of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which are difficult to be identified and recognized. Soy sauce aroma-type is a main aroma-type of Baijiu in China, Wuling soy sauce aroma-type Baijiu, which produced in Hunan, is one of important representatives. In order to further explore the composition of important trace VSCs in soy sauce aroma-type Baijiu in China, head space solid phase micro-extraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC×GC-SCD) was used in this study to analyze the VSCs in 6 kinds of Wuling soy sauce aroma-type Baijiu samples. A total of 27 VSCs were identified in this study, of which 19 VSCs were coexistent and 8 VSCs were not coexistent in 6 kinds of Wuling soy sauce aroma-type Baijiu samples, mainly including 4 kinds of thiols, 6 kinds of thioesters, 5 kinds of thioethers, 5 kinds of thiazoles, 6 kinds of thiophenes and 1 kind of thiane. The external standard curve method was used for quantitative analysis of 23 VSCs of which signal to noise ratio was greater than 100. Based on quantitative analysis results, principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to demonstrate the differences in the VSCs contents of 6 kinds of Wuling soy sauce aroma-type Baijiu samples. Fourteen VSCs with variable projection value greater than 1 were screened out as the difference components to distinguish the flavor characteristics of the 6 kinds of Wuling soy sauce aroma-type Baijiu samples. It was hoped that the study could provide data reference for the blending of soy sauce aroma-type Baijiu and provide help for Baijiu enterprises to regulate the production process and improve product quality.

    • ZHAO Zhi, SUN Zhe, LIU Fudong, HONG Weilian, GAO Haina, ZHAO Wen, ZHANG Ming, FAN Jinbo

      2024(1):94-105, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202300135

      Abstract:

      The inhibition effect of Lactobacillus paracasei (L.paracasei) ET-22 live bacteria, known for its efficacy in preventing dental caries, and postbiotic components (heat-inactivated bacteria and secretions) on Candida albicans was investigated. After evaluating the antioxidant capacity of L. paracasei ET-22 live bacteria and its postbiotic components and the inhibition rate of Candida albicans hyphae transformation, an oral candidiasis model of ICR mice was established by injection of immunosuppressants and application of Candida albicans. Before and after modeling, L. paracasei ET-22 live bacteria with a dose of 109CFU/mL and corresponding postbiotic components were continuously administered through drinking water for 18d to study the effects of L. paracasei ET-22 on the morphology of mouse tongue tissue and the expression of inflammatory factors. At a concentration of 109CFU/mL of L.paracasei ET-22 live bacteria, the live bacteria exhibited the highest inhibition rate of 37.84% against the budding of Candida albicans. The heat-inactivated bacteria and secretions in the postbiotic components showed inhibition rates of 17.50% and 28.00%, respectively. In animal models, after intervention with live bacteria and postbiotic components, the concentration of IFN-γ in the serum was significantly reduced. In the secretion group, the content of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the tongue tissue was significantly reduced, while in the live bacteria group, only TNF-α content was significantly reduced. The live bacteria and heat-inactivated bacteria groups showed a significant increase in the CCL20 chemokine content and the richness and diversity of coated tongue microbiota. The histopathological sections showed that the ET-22 live bacteria and secretion group significantly improved the looseness of the mouse tongue epithelium and inflammatory cell infiltration, and the heat-inactivated bacteria group had a positive effect on the shedding of papillae and tongue epithelium. The experimental results showed that ET-22 could regulate oral microbiota composition and inhibit harmful bacteria to oral through alleviating the inflammatory infiltration and metastasis of tongue tissue. The study indicated that ET-22 could decrease the risk of oral candidiasis and could be further developed for oral probiotic food with the function of oral health caring.

    • MA Jiage, TAN Zhongmei, TIAN Zihao, WU Mengguo, WEI Xuan, REN Jie, JIANG Zhanmei, YU Wei , HOU Juncai 

      2024(1):106-113, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202300211

      Abstract:

      The LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing (QS) system mediates intraspecific and interspecific signals of lactic acid bacteria, among which autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is crucial for probiotic activities of lactic acid bacteria, including environmental stress tolerance, adhesion and colonization ability. However, the regulatory effect of LuxS/AI-2 QS system in the resistance of Lactobacillus plantarum to various environmental stresses still needs to be systematically studied. The production of the signaling molecule AI-2 and the transcription of QS key genes luxS and pfs of Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS 1.0328 under environmental stress were analyzed by biological study and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that acid stress could induce the production of signal molecule AI-2 and the transcription of luxS and pfs was significantly promoted under strong acid and alkali stress (P<0.05). Low temperature 25℃, high temperature 50℃ and hyperosmotic stress induced by mass fraction 6.0% NaCl and mass fraction 3.0% NaCl+3.0% KCl could significantly inhibit cell proliferation, acid production and signal molecule AI-2 production. The transcription of luxS and pfs was up-regulated under low temperature stress at 25℃. The transcription of luxS and pfs was up-regulated with the increase of hypertonic stress. Furthermore, L. plantarum KLDS 1.0328 was induced to produce more signal molecule AI-2 by nutrient stress. With the aggravation of nutrient stress, the transcription of luxS was significantly up-regulated. The transcription of luxS and pfs reached the highest level when the nutrient volume fraction was 20%, while the transcription of pfs was significantly inhibited when the nutrient substance was diluted to volume fraction 40%-60% (P<0.05). These results indicated that LuxS/AI-2 QS system had different variation patterns under various environmental stresses, and played an important role in the stress resistance of L. plantarum KLDS 1.0328.

    • WANG Daodian, WEI Guangqiang, TAO Jifang, LI Xiang, ZHAO Xingwen, HUANG Aixiang

      2024(1):114-125, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202300235

      Abstract:

      Protein degradation during fermentation and maturation of Dahe black pig ham results in abundant bioactive peptides. In order to investigate whether there were α-glucosidase inhibitory peptides in Dahe black pig ham and its activity, ham peptides of different molecular masses were prepared by ultrafiltration separation, and α-glucosidase inhibition rate was used as an index to identify, screen and study the activity of peptides in Dahe black pig ham by peptidomics combined with bioinformatics analysis. The results showed that the peptide of Dahe black pig ham with molecular weight less than 3kDa had good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. A total of 143 peptides were identified from Dahe black pig ham, mainly derived from myosin, troponin and β-enolase. The further screened peptide IEEALGDK showed a good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=1.42mg/mL). The results of BIOPEP-UWM search revealed that the peptide IEEALGDK was a novel bioactive peptide. Peptide stability studies have shown that the IEEALGDK peptide has good thermal stability, acid and alkali resistance and gastrointestinal digestive stability. Molecular docking results showed that the peptide IEEALGDK mainly exerted its active effects by occupying the active residue sites of α-glucosidase, Arg594, Arg727, Arg799 and Arg467 through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. The IEEALGDK peptide derived from Dahe black pig ham had good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and the study aimed to provide a theoretical support for the further development and use of the Dahe black pig ham peptide.

    • Applied Technology
    • WANG Haili, GUAN Xin, TANG Yuan, SONG Huanlu, PAN Wenqing, GONG Lin, CHEN Wanying

      2024(1):126-142, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200883

      Abstract:

      In order to study the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis process for preparing thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring, bovine bone extract (BBE) was used as raw material, and compound enzyme was selected. The effects of enzymatic hydrolysis temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis time, compound enzyme addition amount and compound enzyme addition ratio on the degree of hydrolysis of enzymatic hydrolysate and the sensory score of thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by Maillard reaction of enzymatic hydrolysate with sugar, amino acid and other raw materials were investigated by single factor and response surface test. The mass ratio of free amino acid was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the mass ratio of key odor compounds of thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared before and after enzymatic hydrolysis of BBE was analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-O-MS). The results showed that the better enzymatic hydrolysis process of BBE was enzymatic hydrolysis temperature of 50℃, enzymatic hydrolysis time of 4h, enzyme addition amount of 1250U/g, and the ratio of compound flavor protease to compound protease was 3∶2. Under this condition, the sensory score was 8.17. Compared with BBE, the mass ratio of 15 free amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate increased significantly. The odor profile and taste profile of BBE and enzymatic hydrolysate were measured by electronic nose and electronic tongue. It was found that the nitrogen oxide odor characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysate were enhanced, and the umami, richness and salty taste characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysate were more obvious. The key odor compounds of thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by BBE and enzymatic hydrolysate were analyzed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with GC×GC-O-MS. A total of 164 volatile odor compounds were identified, including 27 aldehydes, 30 ketones, 12 alcohols, 16 acids, 7 sulfur-containing compounds, 10 esters, 18 pyrazines, 10 furans, 6 thiazoles, 4 thiophenes and 24 other compounds. Through gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, 74 odor-active compounds were detected. There were 22 key odor compounds with odor activity value (OAV) greater than 1. The most important key odor compounds in the thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by BBE and enzymatic hydrolysate both were bis(2-methyl-3-furanyl) disulfide (OAV was 13079 and 8053, respectively). Compared with the thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by BBE, 5 new key odor compounds, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, methyl furfuryl disulfide, S-methyl thiohexanoate and β-caryophyllene appeared in the thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by enzymatic hydrolysate. The purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical basis for the enzymatic hydrolysis process in the industrial production of thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring.

    • SUN Cuixia, WANG Shurui, ZANG Yiyu, FU Jialing, FANG Yapeng

      2024(1):143-155, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202300225

      Abstract:

      Compared with low-moisture textured proteins with poor texture and taste, high-moisture textured vegetable proteins (HMTVP) show a fibrous structure and taste similar to animal meat. Being known as a new generation of vegetarian meat products, HMTVP are becoming ideal substitutes for animal protein. Dual-screw extrusion technology was used to prepare high moisture textured proteins taking pea protein isolate (PPI) as material. The effects of process parameters (moisture content, cooking temperature, feeding speed, and screw speed) on the macro and microstructure, texture, and sensory properties of the extrudates were explored. At the same time, an orthogonal experiment was designed and principal component analysis was used to optimize the operating parameters of the extrudates closest to animal meat. The results showed that the moisture content was the key factor to improve the texturization degree and texture of PPI extrudates. The increase of moisture content increased the texturization degree and color of PPI extrudates, and significantly reduced the hardness and chewiness of the extrudates. When the moisture content was too high (65%) or too low (45%), extrudates showed poor fibrous structures. When extruded at 140℃ to 160℃, the PPI extrudates exhibited the better texturization degree, taste, appearance and color. With the increase of the screw speed, the texturization degree of extrudates significantly decreased first and then increased. When feeding speed was increased, the hardness and chewiness of the extrudates significantly increased first and then decreased, while texturization degree decreased first and then increased. Through orthogonal experiment combined with principal component analysis, the optimal processing parameters established were by taking the texture parameters of beef cucumber strips as the target parameter moisture content of 55%, cooking temperature of 160℃, screw speed of 175r/min, and feeding speed of 7g/min. The results aimed to provide technical support for the quality control of high-moisture textured vegetable proteins.

    • WANG Lingyu, ZHAO Xueling, WANG Anqi, CHEN Cheng, WANG Xuanyu, WANG Xintao, LI Xiuhe, WANG Huifang, DAI Fuhong, GAO Tiecheng, ZHOU Zhongkai, LI Ning

      2024(1):156-163, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200924

      Abstract:

      Cyperus esculentus is a high-quality and healthy crop, rich in nutrients. Insoluble dietary fiber of Cyperus esculentus was prepared via an enzymolysis method. Compared with the commercial soybean dietary fiber, the physicochemical, structural and emulsifying properties of Cyperus esculentus insoluble dietary fiber (CEIDF) were studied. The results showed that the CEIDF had a better water holding capacity [(14.45± 0.19)g/g], oil holding capacity [(8.21±0.06)g/g] and expansion capacity [(14.23±0.12)mL/g], than those of soybean dietary fiber. The average volume diameter of the CEIDF was (64.47±0.18)μm, which was 56.65% of that of soybean dietary fiber. The results of low field NMR indicated that CEIDF had more bound water, while the soybean dietary fiber had more free water. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that CEIDF had a less weight loss and a greater thermal stability compared to the soybean dietary fiber. In terms of emulsifying properties, with the increased concentration of CEIDF, the emulsion particle size increased significantly. Under the same concentration of dietary fiber, the particle size of the emulsion prepared from CEIDF was significantly lower than soybean dietary fiber which indicated that the stability of the emulsion prepared from CEIDF was better than the emulsion prepared from soybean dietary fiber. Under the same concentration, the viscosity of CEIDF was lower than that of soybean dietary fiber, while the energy storage modulus and loss modulus of emulsion prepared from 4% CEIDF were the highest. This study aimed to provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of CEIDF.

    • DENG Xingcheng, REN Zhiqiang, ZENG Bo, WEI Chunhui, DENG Jie, XIE Jun, HUANG Zhiguo

      2024(1):164-176, DOI: 10.12031/spxb202300140

      Abstract:

      In the study, starch-rich sorghum was used as raw material to improve the production efficiency of caproic acid by two-step anaerobic fermentation. The first step was to inoculate caproic acid compound bacteria, inoculate Lactobacillus acidophilus TYCA06, and add Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce butyric acid fermentation broth, lactic acid fermentation broth and ethanol fermentation broth. The second step was to mix butyric acid fermentation broth, lactic acid fermentation broth and ethanol fermentation broth, and then inoculate caproic acid compound bacteria to produce caproic acid by anaerobic fermentation. The results showed that by optimizing the fermentation process of butyric acid fermentation broth, lactic acid fermentation broth and ethanol fermentation broth, the butyric acid and acetic acid yield in butyric acid fermentation broth reached 20.16g/L and 8.47g/L, and the starch conversion rate reached 76.02%. The lactic acid yield and lactic acid yield rate in lactic acid fermentation broth reached 11.41g/L and 42.48% respectively. The ethanol yield in ethanol fermentation broth reached 95.06%. Continuing to optimize the caproic acid fermentation process, it was found that when ethanol fermentation broth and lactic acid fermentation broth were used as electron donors at the same time, the yield and yield rate of caproic acid were significantly increased, reaching 4.15g/L and 75.2mg/g, respectively, and when the mass concentration ratio of ethanol to lactic acid added in ethanol fermentation broth and lactic acid fermentation broth was 2∶1, the yield and yield rate of caproic acid reached the highest, reaching 6.65g/L and 99.78mg/g, respectively. According to the correlation analysis between microorganisms and caproic acid in the process of caproic acid fermentation, Caproiciproducens, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_12 and Pseudoclavibacter were positively correlated with caproic acid content in the fermentation process. Among them, Caproiciproducens was continuously enriched with fermentation, and the relative abundance reached 37.81% in the later stage of fermentation, which was the main contributor to the formation of caproic acid. It was hoped that the study could provide a theoretical basis for the production of caproic acid by two-step anaerobic fermentation of sorghum without exogenous electron donor, and provide a new idea for expanding the resource utilization of sorghum.

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    • Effect of thermal sterilization on the physicochemical stability of flaxseed milk

      yuxiao, yang fan, dengqianchun

      Abstract:

      Flaxseed, as a functional food raw material, was rich in α-linolenic acid, high-quality proteins, soluble polysaccharides, lignans and other active lipid concomitants, thereby possessing high nutritional value and potential for development and utilization. This paper aimed to explore the effect of different thermal sterilization conditions (65 ℃-30 min, 85 ℃-15 min and 95 ℃-15 s) on the physicochemical stability of flaxseed milk, focusing on the changes in interfacial properties of oil bodies. The results showed that the thermal sterilisation treatment resulted in a gradual increase in the mean particle size of flaxseed milk by 95.58% (p<0.05) and a gradual decrease in the absolute value of the zeta potential by 12.26% (p<0.05), which was accompanied by the weakening viscoelastic properties and an increase in the physical stability of the milk. thermal sterilisation, the ratio of protein at the oil bodies interface in flaxseed milk increased by 64.42% (p<0.05) and the ratio of total sugar mass increased by 97.95% (p<0.05). The cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging further confirmed the adsorption of exogenous storage proteins and soluble polysaccharides at the interface of oil bodies. In addition, the thermal sterilisation treatment increased the total phenolic content of the oil bodies interface in flaxseed milk by 1.42 times (P<0.05), the flavonoid content by 4.94 times (P<0.05), as well as the free radical scavenging capacity of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) by 4.64 times (P<0.05), and FRAP ferric reducing antioxidant power by 54.05% (P<0.05). In conclusion, suitable thermal sterilization treatment (85 ℃-15 min) could enhance the physical and chemical stability of flaxseed milk based on the interfacial remodeling of oil bodies, which is hoped to provide a certain theoretical basis for further broadening the intake form and application scenarios of flaxseed.

      • 1
    • Intervention and intestinal microflora effects of soybean and pork high-protein diets on obese mice

      JIANG Songsong, WANG Tao, JI Shanshan, TANG Xinlei, LI Qian, WANG Hengpeng, MENG Xiangren

      Abstract:

      Obesity is a complex metabolic disease, which has a certain relationship with intestinal microflora. To evaluate the effect of high protein diet from soybean protein and pork protein and normal diet on intestinal microflora structure of obese mice. A C57BL/6J obesity mice model was firstly induced by high fat diet, then obese mice were randomly divided into 4 groups according to body weight: high fat diet (HF) group, normal recovery (NR) group, high soy protein diet (HSP) group and high pork protein diet (HPP) group. Besides, the blank control (NC) group was set. The effects of adipose index, inflammatory factors and adipose micro-structure of obese mice were analyzed. Cecal contents were collected to analyze by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology after 12 weeks. Compared with HF group, the body weight, fat coefficient, LPS level and TNF-α mass concentration in serum of mice in HSP and HPP groups were significantly decreased in different degree, meanwhile, liver HE staining and oil Red O staining showed that liver fat deposition was significantly reduced in HSP and HPP groups (P < 0.05). Besides, high fat diet and high protein diet significantly reduced the species richness and diversity of intestinal microflora including evolutionary relationships (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference in species diversity and evenness (P > 0.05). The high-protein diet changed the intestinal microflora structure of obese mice and the results will provide a new understanding for the prevention and treatment of obesity regulating intestinal microflora through dietary intervention.

      • 1
    • Analysis of Changes in Nutritional Compositions and Key Aroma Compounds in Chicken Wings After Frying

      WANG Jianan, LIU Yang, LI Kaixuan, XIE Jianchun

      Abstract:

      The chicken wings were fried with palm oil. Changes of fatty acids and amino acids in the chicken wings after frying and aroma compounds in the fried chicken wings were analyzed. The totals of fatty acid contents and amino acid contents in the muscles of the chicken wings after frying were both increased. In particular, the ratios of the essential amino acids to total amino acids (EAA /TAA) and the essential amino acids to non-essential amino acids (EAA/NEAA) became higher and reached 43.23%和76.16%, respectively, suggesting the meat nutritive indices were increased. Solvent assisted flavor evaporation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with frequency detection were utilized to analyze the aroma-active compounds in meat of the fried chicken wings. GC-MS identified 79 compounds while GC-O identified 51 odor-active compounds. The odor activity values (OAV) for those with higher detection frequencies in the GC-O analysis were calculated, of which 25 compounds with OAVs≥1 were considered to be the key aroma compounds in the fried chicken wings. They included dimethyl disulfide, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, methional, bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide, 2-methyl-pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethyl-pyrazine, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-pyrazine, 2-pentylfuran, 2-methylbutanal, octanal, (E)-2-heptenal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, benzeneacetaldehyde, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, etc. The research results can provide references for chicken cooking and processing and chicken flavorings preparation.

      • 1
    • Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process of Thermal Reaction Bovine Bone Flavoring and Identification of Key Odor Compounds

      WANG Haili, GUAN Xin, TANG Yuan, SONG Huanlu, PAN Wenqing, GONG Lin, CHEN Wanying

      Abstract:

      In order to study the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis process for preparing thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring, bovine bone extract (BBE) was used as raw material, and compound enzyme was selected. The effects of enzymatic hydrolysis temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis time, compound enzyme addition amount and compound enzyme addition ratio on the degree of hydrolysis of enzymatic hydrolysate and the sensory score of thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by Maillard reaction of enzymatic hydrolysate with sugar and amino acid were investigated by single factor and response surface test. The mass ratio of free amino acid was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the mass ratio of key odor compounds of thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared before and after enzymatic hydrolysis of BBE was analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-O-MS). The results showed that the better enzymatic hydrolysis process of BBE was enzymatic hydrolysis temperature of 50°C, enzymatic hydrolysis time of 4 h, enzyme addition amount of 1250 U/g, and the ratio of compound flavor protease to compound protease was 1: 1. Under this condition, the sensory score was 8.24. Compared with BBE, the mass ratio of 15 free amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate increased significantly. The odor profile and taste profile of BBE and enzymatic hydrolysate were measured by electronic nose and electronic tongue. It was found that the nitrogen oxide odor characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysate were enhanced, and the umami, richness and salty taste characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysate were more obvious. The key odor compounds of thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by BBE and enzymatic hydrolysate were analyzed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with GC×GC-O-MS. A total of 164 volatile odor compounds were identified, including 27 aldehydes, 30 ketones, 12 alcohols, 16 acids, 7 sulfur-containing compounds, 10 esters, 18 pyrazines, 10 furans, 6 thiazoles, 4 thiophenes and 24 other compounds. Through gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, 74 odor-active compounds were detected. There were 22 key odor compounds with odor activity value (OAV) greater than 1. The most important key odor compounds in the thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by BBE and enzymatic hydrolysate were bis(2-methyl-3-furanyl) disulfide (OAV was 13078 and 8052, respectively). Compared with the thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by BBE, 5 new key odor compounds (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, methyl furfuryl disulfide, S-methyl thiohexanoate and β-caryophyllene appeared in the thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring prepared by enzymatic hydrolysate. The purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical basis for the enzymatic hydrolysis process in the industrial production of thermal reaction bovine bone flavoring.

      • 1
    • Difference Analysis of Volatile Sulfur-Containing Compounds in6 Kinds of Wuling Soy Sauce Aroma-Type Baijiu

      LIXING, WU LILING, PEI RONGHONG, ZHU LIN, ZHENG FUPING, SUN JINYUAN, SUN BAOGUO

      Abstract:

      Volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSCs) have the characteristics of strong aromas and low thresholds, which have important impacts on the flavor of baijiu, wine and other foods. In order to fully understand the distribution differences of VSCs in baijiu, solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-sulfur chemiluminescence detection was used to analyze the VSCs in the six samples both qualitatively and quantitatively. The differences of VSCs in 6 kinds of Wuling soy sauce aroma-type baijiu samples were investigated using principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The results demonstrated that there were significant differences in the VSCs contents of the six kinds of soy sauce aroma-type baijiu. Excellent separation of the six samples could be achieved by OPLS-DA. Based on the variable projection importance greater than 1, 14 VSCs were screened out as the different components from the analysis results to distinguish the flavor characteristics of different Wuling samples. The results of HCA showed that the six kinds of soy sauce aroma-type samples could be divided into two categories according to the type and content of VSCs. This study aims to enrich the research on the flavor of baijiu and provide a suggestion for the classification of baijiu grades.

      • 1
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    Volume ,2024 Issue 1
      Special Edition
    • Liangli (Lucy) Yu, LU Weiying, LIU Jie, DU Lijuan

      2016,34(6):1-6, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2016.06.001

      Abstract:

      Non-targeted detection technique has been extensively applied in the food safety and quality in recent years. In general, a non-targeted detection combines analytical approaches,fingerprinting techniques and chemometrics to detect toxicants or foreign components in foods without knowing their chemical structures. The key purpose of non-targeted detection technique is to detect whether the sample is abnormal, without prior knowledge of what caused the abnormality. This manuscript introduces and reviews the current progress and the prospect non-targeted food detection techniques, including chromatographic, mass spectrometric, spectroscopic, cell-based non-targeted detection techniques. Foods and ingredients including milk, Chinese wolfberries, Chinese angelica,oregano, honey, etc., were introduced. The non-targeted detection technique can help the healthy development of food industry and play an important role in protecting public welfare and human wellbeing.

    • WEI Yi-min, WEI Shuai, GUO Bo-li, TIAN Yang

      2013,31(2):1-6, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2013.02.001

      Abstract:

      Cadmium -Cd- , a kind of heavy metal pollutant, can enter the food chain though soil, dust, and crops. As a staple crop in China, rice can easily enrich Cd from soil, which can represent a health risk to consumers. Cd concentration in soil shows obvious heterogeneity in China. Cd concentration in rice is over the limit in some regions of China, due to the geological environment or soil pollution. At present, remedying polluted soil, screening low-accumulation material, and processing polluted rice have been developed to deal with Cd contamination. This paper summarized the present situation of cadmium contamination in rice and soil, analyzed the main factor of Cd enrichment in rice, reviewed the control technology of Cd contamination, and provided suggestions on Cd contamination research.

    • LI Jianrong, LI Tingting, DING Ting

      2016,34(1):1-8, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2016.01.001

      Abstract:

      Aquatic product freshness evaluation standards were reviewed in this paper, including the traditional freshness evaluation methods and some kinds of new methods in recent years. Meanwhile, shelf-life predicting models of aquatic products were also introduced, including primary shelf-life model, secondary shelf-life model and tertiary shelf-life model. Moreover, the main problems and the research tendency of freshness comprehensive evaluation and establishment of shelf-life model of aquatic products were discussed, aiming to provide the convenience for the future research of aquatic products.

    • CHEN Feng, LI Hedong, WANG Yaqi, FU Haiyan, ZHENG Fuping

      2017,35(3):1-15, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2017.03.001

      Abstract:

      Chemometrics is a novel and unique interdisciplinary technique that integrates mathematics, statistics, chemistry and computer science. Pattern recognition and multivariate calibration method, as the core aspects of the technique, have exhibited overwhelming advantages in massive data mining and processing, as well as resolution and analysis of analytic signals. In addition, it is able to solve complex problems which are difficult to be solved by conventional analytic methods, resulting in the method to be widely used in many research fields, including food analysis. This paper reviews the fundamental principles of chemometrics in regards of its advantages and disadvantages,applications, and recent progresses. Furthermore, the review has pointed out problems which need to be solved in current researches, and highlighted the prospective aspects of the technique.

    • LI Lin, WAN Liting, LI Bing

      2016,34(2):1-11, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2016.02.001

      Abstract:

      The existence of granular crystals seriously impairs the quality of plastic fats, and consequently, it is important to investigate the formation mechanisms and inhibitions of granular crystals in order to optimize the processing parameters and improve the product properties. The migration and aggregation of high-melting triglycerides as well as β polymorphism evolution are the possible mechanisms for the formation of granular crystals when temperature fluctuates. The fats composition and processing parameters have influences on the granular crystals formation such as shearing rates, temperature, cooling rates. To prevent their generation, modifying lipids by blending and interesterification and the application of emulsifiers were adopted to reduce the content of the high-melting triglycerides and stabilize the β′ polymorphism. Emulsifiers are mainly associated with the triglycerides present in the fat through acyl-acyl interactions, thus the chemical structures' similarity between the acyl groups would likely promote the cocrystallization, while the dissimilarities in fats structure might delay the nucleation and possibly inhibit crystal growth. Emulsifiers have different effects on the crystallization of plastic fats which strongly depend on their concentration and the molecular structure. In addition, when the degree of undercooling is high enough, addictive effects of emulsifiers will be weakened.

    • JIA Yingmin, LIU Yangliu, CHEN Zhou

      2017,35(6):1-9, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2017.06.001

      Abstract:

      For problems of food safety caused by microbial contamination and environmental safety due to drug-resistant strains, the development of emerging natural food additives with broad-spectrum and high-efficiency has been vital study trends in a modern food safety. Antimicrobial peptides(AMPs) are paid much attention for its advantage of broad-spectrum, good stability, unique antimicrobial mechanism of action and lower residue. With the further research, AMPs are expected to play a vital role in the application of food safety. Considering it, AMPs-related researches abroad were concluded in recent years. A review of the exploring and classification situation of AMPs,the development of bio-resistance and mechanism for bacteria, fungi, parasites, virus and tumor cells was provided. Meanwhile, the potential application fields of AMPs in food safety and scientific problems urgent to solve were analyzed. The resolution strategy also is provided for researchers as a reference in the field.

    • CHEN Li-jun, JIANG Tie-min

      2013,31(4):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2013.04.001

      Abstract:

      The dairy industry is related to the people's livelihood and a lot of attentions have been paid to its current situation and future development tendency. This paper introduced the current situation of Chinese dairy industry and analyzed the main problems occurred during the developing process. Moreover, the development tendencies of the basic research, and quality control were also discussed.

    • WANG Shuo, ZHAO Yijie, LU Yang

      2015,33(4):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2015.04.001

      Abstract:

      In this paper,the principles and the application of the molecular imprinted polymer-based sensors, such as lectrochemical sensors,piezoelectric sensors, and optical sensors, were discussed. Meanwhile, the developing trend of the molecular imprinted polymer-based sensor was addressed.

    • FAN Shuangxi, CHEN Xiangning

      2014,32(5):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2014.05.001

      Abstract:

      The current situation, main existing problems and trends of post-harvest processing of leafy vegetables were clarified in this study, and the key technologies to be solved during leafy vegetables processing were also discussed. The solution methods of fresh-cut process, freeze-drying process, disinfection process, packaging technology and equipment automation were emphatically analyzed. All these would give a clear instruction for the processing of leafy vegetables.

    • CHEN Jian, ZHOU Shenghu, WU Junjun, ZHOU Jingwen, DU Guocheng

      2015,33(1):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2015.01.001

      Abstract:

      Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites, which are valuable natural products widely used in human health and nutrition due to its biochemical properties such as antiviral, antiobesity, and anticancer. The efficient production of pure flavonoid compounds through plant extraction or chemical production continues to be a major challenge for drug development. Hence, the microbial production of flavonoids has emerged as an interesting and commercially attractive approach. The emergence of systems metabolic engineering offers new perspectives on strain and process optimization. In this review, the strategies of systems metabolic engineering used to overcome these challenges are summarized, which will offer insights into overcoming the limitations and challenges of large-scale microbial production of these important pharmaceutical compounds.

    • SHAN Yang

      2012,30(3):1-12, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2012.03.001

      Abstract:

      China is the world's largest fruits processing country. The fruits processing industries have become an industry with comparatively superiority and international competitive capability. The importance to develop the processing industry of fruit was elaborated in this article as well as the overseas trend and current situation. The major restriction of the development were analysed, and the countermeasures for the development of this industry in China were also pointed out.

    • Commission Articles by Expert
    • ZHU Yun-ping, YUAN Zuo-yun, LV Yue-gang

      2011,29(1):15-17, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2011.01.004

      Abstract:

      The water and oil content in the instant noodle are two important factors for the quality of the noodle. In this paper, the effect of fried time and fried temperature on the quality of the instant noodle was investigated. The results showed that the longer fried time and higher fried temperature would lead the lower water and higher oil content in the noodle. In addition, the effect of fried time was correlative with that of fried temperature on the quality of the noodle.

    • Special Edition
    • RAO Pingfan, LIU Shutao, ZHOU Jianwu, GUO Jingke, KE Lijing

      2015,33(3):1-4, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2015.03.001

      Abstract:

      Started from food processing, modern food science and food industry have provided the world enormous amount of food and always played a vital role in the development and evolution of human society. To date, food science has systematically studied the food storage, nutrition and sensory characteristics, while the interaction between food and body remains as a puzzle except a few pieces revealed by nutrition science and toxicology. Modern food industry has totally changed the way food is produced and consumed, and more importantly the way food interacts with human body. The ignorance of such changes in food science has made the debates in safety and health risks of industry food even more confusing. Three research topics are proposed for food-body interaction:elucidate the existing status of food compositions; interpret the body response to food; methods to utilise the complementary characteristics of different food compositions. From these new perspectives, some unique approaches and original discoveries of food science ought to be achieved, to provide answers to the major criticism upon food industry and transform food science to an intact science of food, an independent discipline of science.

    • ZHAO Jie-wen, HUANG Xiao-wei, ZOU Xiao-bo, HUANG Lin, SHI Ji-yong.

      2013,31(1):9-13, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2013.01.002

      Abstract:

      Olfaction visualization technology is a gas imaging technology and a new branch of artificial olfactory technology, which can solve common problems of traditional gas sensor. In order to detect the dominant spoilage bacteria (Clostridium, Brochothix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas) and evaluate freshness of pork, porphyrins and pH indicators were used as gas-sensing materials. The three spoilage bacteria were inoculated into three groups of pork samples and stored under three temperatures (16,4℃and 20℃). The images before and after the colorimetric sensor array interacted with pork's volatile flavors were collected, then image processing techniques was used to get digital signals which reflected the freshness of pork. The results showed that the olfaction visualization technology can be applied in rapid detection of dominant spoilage bacteria and evaluation freshness of pork.

    • Clean Production
    • ZHANG Zheng-jie, WANG Ping

      2011,29(1):54-58, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2011.01.012

      Abstract:

      The effects of culture conditions on the growth of Chlorella. sp were studied. The nutrient factors showed obvious effect on Chlorella.sp. The culture conditions based on BG-11 were optimized by orthogonal experiments: Na2CO 3 0.02g/L, the initial pH 6, the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus 30, inoculum 5%, temperature 25℃, illumination 8800lx. Under the optimal culture conditions, the growth rate of Chlorella.sp was enhanced significantly.

    • Food Chemistry & Technology
    • WANG Shao-yun, ZHAO Jun, WU Jin-hong, CHEN Lin

      2011,29(4):50-57, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2011.04.013

      Abstract:

      Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are the thermal hysteresis proteins that have the ability to modify the growth and inhibit the recrystallization of the ice. Antifreeze proteins aroused great interests of many researchers due to its special structure and functions. In this article, the recent advance in antifreeze protein was reviewed, and the types, properties, measurements, gene structures of antifreeze protein, and its applications in food industry were introduced. The application trials indicated that antifreeze protein could significantly improve the qualities of frozen foods, which suggested the potential food additives of antifreeze protein in future frozen food industry.

    • Special Edition
    • LIN Hong, LI Meng, CAO Li-min

      2012,30(1):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2012.01.001

      Abstract:

      The research on aquatic products safety and the quality control technology was summarized and analyzed to reveal the present situation of aquatic products safety and quality control in China. Most of the research was focus on quality detection and control technology, others were about tracing system, early warning mechanism and risk assessment. At present, the enormous progress was made in technologies of quality detection and control. However, comparing with the advanced technology at abroad, the technology and management system in China still need to be improved. In the future, the aquatic food quality security technology should be promoted furtherly.

    • Foundational Research
    • SHEN Yun-gang, XIAO Zhu-qing, CHEN Shun-sheng, ZHANG Ying-li, JIANG Wei, LAI Ke-qiang

      2013,31(5):37-42, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2013.05.007

      Abstract:

      There has been growing concern about the frying oil quality due to its remarkable deterioration during the frying process. To investigate the performance of LF-NMR in the rapid determination of frying oil from various frying conditions, deep frying oil samples (n=107) including 96 soy bean oil samples and 11 shortening samples were collected from street vendors in 10 districts of Shanghai. Total polar compounds (TPC) and viscosity of the oil samples were determined. TPC values of 6 oil samples (56% of all the oil samples) were above the national standard for frying oil, indicating the quality problem of frying oil from the street vendors. The linear analysis showed a good linear relationship (R2=0892) between TPC and viscosity, while R2 was 0927 after the removal of shortening samples. After the analysis of the ratio of T21 areas (S21) in transverse relaxation (T2) spectra, the good correlations between S21 and TPC and viscosity were obtained and R2 was 0860 and 0840. After removing the shortening samples, R2 slightly increased to 0865 and 0854. The results demonstrate that LF-NMR has the potential to rapidly evaluate the quality of deep frying oil.

    • Expert Forum
    • ZHAO Zhi-hui

      2012,30(4):8-11, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2012.04.002

      Abstract:

      Mycotoxins, including aflatoxins (AFT), ochratoxin (OT), fumonisin (F), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and patulin (PAT) frequently contaminating agricultural products and feed were summarized. And then the influences of mycotoxin contaminants on human health and animal production were expatiated.

    • LUO Zhi-wen, LIN Jian-long, YU Xiu-hong

      2010,28(2):66-70, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2010.02.015

      Abstract:

      Aim at the problems about camera calibration for train wheel flange of dynamic testing system,the paper discusses the radial constraint-based camera calibration,chooses the camera calibration which contains distortion factors and developed the method of it by LabVIEW. This method makes use of the LabVIEW graphical development environment, embed core programs written in Matlab, has powerful data processing and nice interactive interface.

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    Competent Authority:Beijing Municipal Commission of Education
    Sponsor:Beijing Technology and Business University
    Publishing Institute:Editorial Department of Journal of Food Science and Technology
    Add:33 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, China
    Tel:010-68984535/68986223
    Standard Periodical Number:ISSN 2095-6002
      10-1151/TS