• 《食品科学技术学报》获评“RCCSE中国权威学术期刊(A+)”
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    Volume 40,2022 Issue 5
      Special Edition
    • WU Xiaomeng, RAO Lei, ZHANG Hongchao, HU Xiaosong, LIAO Xiaojun

      2022,40(5):1-13, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200904

      Abstract:

      Various premade cuisine have a long history in China. It satisfied the consumers' demand for taste, nutrition, and convenience, thus showing accelerated growth in recent years. The concept and classification of premade cuisine were defined, and the current challenges in raw materials, food quality, food safety, and standards were proposed. The application trends of relevant novel food processing technologies were summarized. Innovative Preconditioning and cooking technologies improved the color, texture, aroma, taste, and nutritional value of premade cuisine. Novel sterilization technologies use moderate processing intensity to balance food safety and quality. Rapid freezing technologies increased production efficiency and minimized their impact on quality. The application of smart packaging technologies and intelligent logistics can enable the stability of premade cuisine during storage and transportation. This review aims to summarize current information on novel food processing technologies to obtain safe and high-quality premade cuisine, which would provide references to future studies and the healthy development of the industry.

    • LI Xiuting, ZHU Weijia, WU Qiuhua, LU Hongyun, DING Ze, YANG Maochen

      2022,40(5):14-27, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200056

      Abstract:

      Xylooligosaccharides have shown good prebiotic effects in improving intestinal microecology,and good health care effects in lowering blood glucose, blood pressure, and preventing constipation and so on. In recent years, studies on the preparation of functional xylooligosaccharides using bioenzyme technology have attracted much attention. The features of high specificity and catalytic efficiency of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 11 xylanase had obvious advantages for xylooligosaccharide production. However, poor stability of most natural GH11 xylanase made it unable to meet the requirements of extreme conditions such as high temperature, strong acid and alkali in industrial production. Molecular modification of natural xylanase by enzyme engineering technology could make xylanase with good substrate specificity and high catalytic efficiency applicable to extreme industrial conditions such as high temperature, strong acid and alkali,which was important and practical for the industrial production of functional xylooligosaccharides. According to the molecular structure of the GH11 xylanase and its characteristics, disulfide bonds have been found to be of great advantage in improving the stability of the enzyme by comparing their intramolecular interaction forces on the thermal stability of the enzyme. Based on the analysis of the structure of the GH11 xylanase, the common strategies for constructing disulfide bonds was summarized, and the effects of constructing single or multiple disulfide bonds in different regions of the enzyme on improving the stability of the GH11 xylanase were compared. Several regions that showed significant changes in enzyme stability after construction of disulfide bonds were localized, and the mode of action of multiple disulfide bonds on improving enzyme stability was introduced. It was expected to provide valuable information for relevant studies on the improvement of stability by enzyme molecular modification, and to broaden the range of industrial applications of GH11 xylanase.

    • Expert Forum
    • FENG Tao, LIU Qian, YE Ran, CHEN Yi

      2022,40(5):28-35, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200844

      Abstract:

      Flavorings play a pivotal role in food industry as an important kind of food additives. However, improper use of food flavorings can cause food safety risks. There are thousands of flavorings allowed using in food in the world at present. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate regulations and standards for supervision and safety assessment. Relatively perfect supervision and safety assessment systems for food flavorings has formed in EU and USA over the years, which played a vital role in international supervision and safety evaluation of flavorings. The regulatory agencies on food flavorings in EU and USA were reviewed. Regulations of food flavorings in USA were mainly conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The safety assessment of flavorings was handed over to the Food Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA), which was mainly responsible for security of the food flavorings through the FEMA GRAS program. The supervision of food flavorings in EU was mainly performed by the Council of Europe (COE) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Wherein, EFSA was the authoritative organization that formulated food safety regulations and mainly published the list of EU-licensed food flavorings. In addition, safety assessment methods including exposure estimation and toxicological assessment were reviewed. The PCI×10 method was most acceptable for exposure estimation in USA, while the MSDI method was considered to be the most suitable method for intake estimation of general flavorings by EFSA. In terms of toxicological assessment, the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) method was currently utilized for genotoxic risk assessment both in EU and USA. The safety evaluation systems of flavorings in EU and USA were highly similar, which could also provide guidance and reference for the improvement of the supervision and safety assessment system for food flavorings in China.

    • MU Min, LIU Hua, LIANG Yanhui, LI Meng

      2022,40(5):36-42, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202100708

      Abstract:

      In recent years, fragrance and flavor industry in China kept overall growth, but the development speed was slowed down. Compared with developed countries and regions, the gap had a tendency to widen. In 2020, the main business income of fragrance and flavor industry in China exceeded 40 billion yuan, of which the production and sales of food flavorings amounted to more than one-third of the total fragrance and flavor industry. At the end of 2020, there were nearly 1000 food flavorings manufacturers in China. This study had the outstanding characteristics of large number and wide distribution, uneven distribution and relative concentration, and relatively small scale and uneven development level. In order to ensure the safety of food flavorings in China, food and food additive related laws and regulations and the standard system of food safety national standards constituted the supervision system on food flavorings. This study was aimed at the difficulty of obtaining the production license for the sub-packaging of food flavorings, the production licenses issued to each product, prohibition of re-inspection of synthetic food flavor substances, the less food flavor substances permitted to use, slower approval of new varieties, and preposition of national food safety standards. This study proposed to implement scientific and effective supervision based on the characteristics of industries and products, further simplify the approval procedures for new varieties and establish safety assessments system, allow the adoption and implementation of other standards beside the national food safety standards, strengthen the popularization of science and establish a positive image of the industry and other suggestions and countermeasures. This paper was expected to provide a useful reference for the faster development of China's food flavoring industry and to meet the needs of domestic and foreign markets.

    • Foundational Research
    • YAN Maomao, XU Xiaofei, PENG Simin, WU Shaohui, HAO Zhanxi, WEI Yuanan

      2022,40(5):43-50, 81, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202100508

      Abstract:

      The functional differences among individual prebiotics are largely unknown, and different prebiotics are usually used as functional composition analogues for food addition and clinical intervention. To investigate the functional specificity of 6 widely-used prebiotics (GF2,2′-FL, FOS, GOS, MOS and inulin) on inflammation and immunity, which could provides guidance and experimental evidence for precise nutrition, a model of intestinal epithelial cell inflammation was firstly constructed by using EHEC (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) to stimulate HCT-8 cells. And the effects of six prebiotics on cell inflammation were analyzed via detecting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and expression levels of proteins TNF-α and IL-6 in its downstream. Then a in vitro dentritic cell maturation assay was constructed. Human dentritic cells were obtained by density gradient centrifugation, and used GM-CSF and IL-4 cytokines to stimulate PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) separated from 30 volunteers and treated with or without prebiotics. The effects of six prebiotics treatment on dentritic cells maturation were determined by comparing the proportion of mature dentritic cells through flow cytometry. The results showed that only 2′-FL, GOS and GF2 treatment could inhibit the EHEC-induced HCT-8 cell inflammation. In addition, 2′-FL, GF2 and inulin treatment promoted dentritic cells maturation (increase rate 73.3%, 57.1% and 63.3%, respectively), GOS treatment significantly inhibited dentritic cells maturation (decrease rate 73.3%). Therefore, these findings suggested that the effects on regulating immunity varied among different prebiotics and prebiotics addition required precise design according to the physical condition of individuals.

    • GE Xiaoxiao, DENG Shufang, ZENG Kaifang, DENG Lili

      2022,40(5):51-61, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200165

      Abstract:

      Temperature is one of the main environmental factors that regulate the coloration of citrus fruits after harvest. The effects of storage temperature of 5℃, 25℃ and 32℃ on the peel color, the plastid structure and the expression levels of related genes of early-ripening mandarin fruits (green ripening) produced in Chongqing Beibei were studied. The results showed that on the 9th day, the fruit showed significant coloring differences under different storage temperatures, and the color index of the fruits stored under 5℃ did not change significantly, and the color of peel was green. C* and a*/b* of the fruit stored at 25℃ increased significantly, H* decreased significantly, and the peel color changed from green to yellow. C* and a*/b* of the fruit stored at 32℃ increased slightly, and the peel remained green without significant change in H*. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the peel oil gland was oval when the fruit was harvested. The oil lumen, a complete plastid structure and the plasmid layer were clearly visible, and a small number of plastoglobulus were distributed in the plastid. Storaged at 5℃ delayed the change of the structure of peel oil gland, and the expression levels of plastid-related genes CcISPH1, CcISPH2, CcISPH3 and CcCRR22 were low, and the chloroplasts changed slowly. The peel oil gland morphology of fruits stored at 25℃ gradually disintegrated, and the up-regulated expression of CcISPH1, CcISPH3 and CcCRR22 promoted the development and differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplast. The peel oil gland-layer structure of the 32℃ stored fruit disintegrated, showing a semi-vacuum state, and CcISPH3 and CcHSP17.6II were up-regulated on the 3rd and 6th day of storage, while the expression of CcCRR22 was down-regulated. And chloroplasts differentiated into chromoplast and then differentiated into chloroplasts. The experimental results aimed to provide some theoretical reference for well understanding the regulation mechanism of temperature on the coloration of postharvest citrus fruit.

    • YAO Ting, DING Fenglan, WANG Ke, MA Guowei, CHEN Yujuan, ZHANG Yan, HE Xinmeng, WANG Yousheng

      2022,40(5):62-70, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202100734

      Abstract:

      Jujube fruit is thin-skinned, thick flesh, tender and juicy. During post-harvest transportation, jujube fruit is vulnerable to be damaged and infected by microorganism. In this study, pathogenic fungi that caused postharvest rot and deterioration of jujube were isolated from the infected jujube fruit. Based on morphological observations, fungal rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, the phylogenetic tree was constructed. Meanwhile healthy jujube fruit was re-inoculated with all of the purified isolates and symptom of lesion was verified. Three filamentous fungi (221# , 227# and 232# ) were isolated from natural infected winter jujube during post-harvest storage and two filamentous fungi (229# and 230# ) from jun jujube fruit. According to the morphological observation, the genus of the five fungi strains belong to Fusarium (221# and 227# ), Stemphylium (229# and 232# ) and Aureobasidium (230# ). The results obtained by the analysis of rDNA ITS sequence of five strains were identified as 221# (Fusarium equiseti), 227# (Fusarium incarnatum), 229# (Stemphylium lycopersici), 230# (Aureobasidium proteae) and 232# (Stemphylium armeriae) respectively. None of these five pathogenic fungi strains had been reported to cause postharvest diseases of jujube, among which S. armeriae was not reported to cause plant diseases. The study aimed to discover more pathogenic fungi species causing jujube diseases, and hoped to provide a theoretical basis for biocontrol measures for jujube fruit diseases.

    • LI Lianghao, MENG Shihao, JING Si, ZHENG Fuping, LI Fan, LI Yi, TONG Yi

      2022,40(5):71-81, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202100629

      Abstract:

      The content of volatile components in edible alcohol is extremely low. However, these low volatile components directly affect the taste and grading of edible alcohol. Therefore, the superior and super grade edible alcohol were used as the research objects. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in the two grades of edible alcohol were performed by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF MS). The volatile compounds identified in different grades of edible alcohol were used as variables, and multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to establish a discriminant model for edible alcohol grading, and identified the main differential compounds between the two grades of edible alcohol. The results showed that a total of 60 volatile compounds were identified in edible alcohol of the superior and super grade. The discriminative model could effectively distinguish the edible alcohol of the super grade from superior grade. The contribution rate of the first two principal components of the PCA discrimination model was 51.3%, indicating that the model had good ability to differentiate edible alcohol grades. The fit index of the dependent variable of the PLS-DA discrimination model was 0.966, and the prediction accuracy of the model was 0.934, indicating that the model had good stability and prediction ability. Based on the analysis of the projection importance of the variables, 23 marker compounds were discriminated to distinguish between superior and super grade edible alcohol. Among them, the contents of ethyl decanoate, n-octane and cis-β-methylstyrene were significantly higher in super grade edible alcohol than those in superior grade edible alcohol. The contents of acetal, ethyl butyrate, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol, ethyl valerate, styrene, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, acetic acid, ethyl benzoate, propanol, 1-methylnaphthalene, nonanal, n-hexane, benzaldehyde, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, n-propylbenzene, (-)-limonene, γ-butyrolactone and hexanal were significantly higher in superior grade edible alcohol than those in super grade edible alcohol. The largest differences in the relative content of volatile components between the two grades of edible alcohol were acetal, ethyl butyrate, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol and ethyl pentanoate. The results of the study were hoped to provide data reference and theoretical support for the objective discrimination of different grades of edible alcohol.

    • XUE Yibin, LI Xue, LI Yanxiao, JIANG Zhengqiang, YAN Qiaojuan

      2022,40(5):82-92, 109, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202100910

      Abstract:

      In order to study secretory expression and properties of acid protease from Aspergillus japonicus and its application in pork tenderization, the acid protease gene (AjproA1) from Aspergillus japonicus was efficiently expressed in Pichia pastoris. After high cell-density fermentation in a 5L fermenter, the enzyme activity and protein concentration of the fermentation supernatant were 669.6U/mL and 6.64mg/mL, respectively. According to the results of amino acid multiple sequence alignment analysis, the acid protease belongs to the aspartic protease A1 family, which had the highest homology (73%) with acid protease from Aspergillus phoenicis, and was a novel acid protease. The acid protease was purified by strong anion exchange chromatography to obtain electrophoresis-grade pure enzyme. After purification, the optimal catalytic conditions for recombinant acid protease (AjproA1) was pH 3.0 and reaction temperature 45℃, and it had good stability in the pH range of 3.0-6.0 and temperature below 40℃. The results of the hydrolysis analysis of this acid protease for different proteins showed that the enzyme exhibited broad substrate hydrolysis specificity and the highest hydrolysis activity toward κ-casein for casein components. AjproA1 was used to tenderize pork and effectively reduced the shearing force of pork to achieve a good tenderization effect. The research results aimed to provide a theoretical reference for the development of novel acid proteases and their application in meat tenderization.

    • PEI Jinhong, LI Xueqing, ZHANG Jianbin, WEI Xingxing, WANG Junmei

      2022,40(5):93-100, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200149

      Abstract:

      To study the antioxidant effect of crude polysaccharides from grape seeds(GSCPs) in vitro and its in vivo antioxidant activity on Caenorhabditis elegans(C.elegans), GSCPs were extracted and isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. The scavenging effect of GSCPs on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical and hydroxyl free radical as well as their inhibitory effect on DNA oxidative damage were detected in vitro. The antioxidant capacity of GSCPs on cellular level was investigated by H2O2-induced oxidative damage model of RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, the antioxidant function in vivo of GSCPs was studied by C.elegans. The results of in vitro experiment demonstrated that GSCPs could effectively scavenge free radicals and inhibit oxidative damage to DNA. The scavenging activities of 0.4mg/mL GSCPs for DPPH and hydroxyl radical were 84% and 89%, respectively. GSCPs could attenuate H2O2-induced oxidative damage in RAW 264.7 macrophages by decreasing reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels and increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px). Compared with H2O2 treated group, the activity of SOD and GSH-Px increased from 81.1% to 96.3% and from 92.1% to 99.6%, respectively after treated with 0.2mg/mL GSCPs. GSCPs could prolong C.elegans lifespan, improve the ability to resist acute oxidative stress, and effectively remove ROS in C.elegans. Compared with the control group, the average lifespan of C. elegans and the average survival time under acute oxidative stress were prolonged by 27.67% and 33.58%, respectively in the 0.8mg/mL GSCPs treated group. In contrast, GSCPs could cause 56.33% reduction in ROS levels of C.elegans. Therefore, GSCPs showed good antioxidant activicy in vivo and in vitro, which could be used as potential antioxidant ingredients in functional foods.

    • LI Jiaxun, ZHANG Qiuxiang, TANG Xin, MAO Bingyong, CUI Shumao, ZHAO Jianxin, ZHANG Hao, CHEN Wei

      2022,40(5):101-109, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200215

      Abstract:

      To explore the effects of three metabolites mixture [cyclo (leucine-proline) dipeptide, 3-phenyllactic acid and hydrocinnamic acid] produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CCFM8724 on the biofilm of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, and their mechanisms, dual-species biofilm formation, the production of extracellular polysaccharides and extracellular proteins, the production of quorum sensing signal molecule AI-2, and the biofilm structure were determined. The way and conformation of small moleculae metabolites binding to pathogenic targets was explored by molecular docking. The results showed that the composition significantly reduced the biofilm formation of S.mutans and C.albicans (reduction rate 79.4%), the production of water-insoluble exopolysaccharides (reduction rate 63.8%), extracellular protein (reduction rate 60.2%), and the production of quorum sensing signal molecule AI-2 (reduction rate 80.7%), and destroyed the biofilm structure at the same time. Molecular docking results revealed that the three metabolites could bind to targets such as S. mutans PtxA protein and C. albicans Fba protein, affect their sugar metabolism, and consequently inhibit biofilm formation. Through exploring the potential material basis of L. plantarum CCFM8724 to inhibit dual-species biofilm, the aim was to reveal the possible antibacterial mechanism of the composition consisting of cyclo (leucine-proline) dipeptide, 3-phenyllactic acid and hydrocinnamic acid at molecular level, and provide a theoretical basis for the development of L. plantarum CCFM8724 and its composition into oral probiotic and postbiotic products.

    • HU Xin, LUO Yeqing, SUN Yaobin, CHEN Hongbing, XIE Yanhai

      2022,40(5):110-119, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200102

      Abstract:

      To study the effect of tropomyosin of Macrobrachium nipponense on macrophage polarization, the differential analysis of gene expression during tropomyosin-induced macrophage polarization was analyzed by transcriptomic analysis. The results showed that compared with the phosphate buffer saline group (PBS group), 69 genes were up-regulated and 154 genes were down-regulated in the tropomyosin-induced group (TM group), and 180 pathways were enriched. In the lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ combined-induced M1 macrophage group(LPSIFN group), 1346 genes were up-regulated, 1360 genes were down-regulated, and 308 pathways were enriched. Compared with the IL-4-induced M2 macrophage group(IL4 group), 455 genes were up-regulated in the TM group, 446 genes were down-regulated and enriched to 269 pathways. According to the KEGG results, five signaling pathways that may be involved in macrophage polarization were selected, including NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The expression of NOD2, TLR2, AKT3, NLRP3, Caspase-1, CD14, Lat, Myd88, NFKBIA and STAT1 genes in these five pathways were verified, and the expression levels of NOD2, TLR2, NLRP3, and STAT1 in the TM group were increased significantly. The NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway related to these four genes were involved in the process of tropomyosin-induced macrophage polarization. The purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical basis for the further analysis of the relationship between macrophage polarization and food allergic relationships.

    • Applied Technology
    • DING Zongru, QIAN Shanhua, WANG Liang, ZHOU Shuaishuai, BIAN Da

      2022,40(5):120-128, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202100825

      Abstract:

      Beverages with low friction usually have better smoothness and comfort in swallowing. As a major component of common beverages, the study of lubrication properties of the sucrose in oral environment will help to discover the influencing factors of low-friction beverages. Six groups of sucrose solutions with different mass fractions were prepared, and then variation of the viscosity of sucrose solution with shear rate was tested. The soft contact friction pair of the ball-on-disc was prepared by polydimethylsiloxane, and the lubrication characteristics of sucrose solution were studied. The slip model of oral soft contact was established and the numerical calculation results of friction coefficient in the slip model were compared with the experimental results under the same conditions. The results showed that the six groups of sucrose solutions were approximately Newtonian fluids, and the solution viscosity increased with the increase of sucrose mass fraction. The lubrication performance of sucrose solution was closely related to the product of speed and viscosity (uη), and the friction coefficient of sucrose solution undergone a stable, then decreasing and then increasing change process with the increase of uη, which was a typical characteristic of Stribeck curve. When uη was in the range of 0.001-0.010Pa·m, sucrose solution had a low friction coefficient. The soft contact slip model could obtain the lubrication performance of sucrose solution in the fluid lubrication region under smooth and rough surface conditions, and verified the validity of some experimental results under the same operating parameters. This study could provide useful technical guidance for the identification of lubrication performance of liquid food in oral environment and beverage development.

    • REN Xin, WANG Linxuan, ZHANG Min, FANG Yuan, ZHANG Chenyang

      2022,40(5):129-138, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202100658

      Abstract:

      In order to explore the effects of different oral processing methods on starch digestion characteristics in vitro, highland barley steamed bread and wheat steamed bread were used as experimental materials. The effects of five in vitro simulated oral processing methods (cutting, cutting with vortex, cutting with grinding, cutting with vortex and mixed with artificial saliva, and cutting with grinding and mixed with artificial saliva) on starch digestion characteristics were studied, and compared with oral processing in vivo to optimize the in vitro simulated starch digestion method of steamed bread products. The results showed that the particle size of food pellets after in vitro simulated oral processing (155-350μ m) and water content (62%-64%) were higher than those of oral chewing in vivo (110-300μm,57%-59%). However, the hardness of the food pellet by simulated oral processing in vitro (0.73-3.77N) was lower than that of oral chewing in vivo (2.44-4.39N). Compared with the group without artificial saliva, the simulated oral processed food pellet obtained after adding artificial saliva was closer to oral chewing in vivo in terms of physical and digestive properties. Among all in vitro methods, the method of cutting with vortex and mixed with artificial saliva could best simulate chewing in vivo, and could be used as a pretreatment method for steamed bread products to simulate starch digestion in vitro. The mode and level of mechanical damage and the mixing mode of solid particles and saliva would affect the formation of food pellets, and then affect the digestion kinetics of steamed bread. The results of correlation analysis showed that there was a significant negative correlation between the final hydrolysis rate and particle size of steamed bread in the later stage of digestion (r=-0.93494, P<0.05). Considering various indicators, in vitro simulated oral processing method of cutting with vortex and mixed with artificial saliva was most suitable for in vitro simulated starch digestion of steamed bread products.

    • XU Jingting, LI Muzi, LI Yue, GUO Shuntang

      2022,40(5):139-147, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202100400

      Abstract:

      Soybean soaking is an important part in the production of soymilk gel (tofu, uncongealed tofu) and soaking conditions could affect the quality of soymilk gel in varying degrees. Different hardness and elasticity were required by different soymilk gel products. To clarify the quality characteristics of soymilk gel under different soaking conditions and determine the suitable soaking conditions for different processing environments and product types, alkaline solution and distilled water were employed to soak soybeans. The water absorption rates of soybean were determined under four typical temperatures as 4℃, 25℃, 37℃ and 55℃ to establish the water absorption dynamic model. The quality indexes including soymilk gel yield, protein extraction rate, gelling process and gel quality of soymilk after coagulated by gluconic acid-δ-lactone under above temperatures were determined and compared. The results showed that when soaking with distilled water, soymilk gel yield, protein concentration of soymilk and gel hardness increased slightly with the increase of soaking temperature and decreased at 37℃. Soaking at 25℃ was most conductive for protein extraction, and the strength of soymilk gel was the strongest, reaching 18.14N. After soaking with alkaline solution, the protein extraction rate and gel water holding capacity of soymilk increased. Therefore, in practical production, when the tempeatures were lower than 20℃, soaking with low concentration of alkali solution could improve the protein extraction rate and the water holding capacity of soymilk gel. After response surface analysis, it was found that when the temperature reached 21℃, the maximum water holding capacity of the gel could be obtained by soaking with alkali solution, and the hardness of the gel was the largest when the temperature was 22℃. At 46℃, the hardness of the gel treated with alkali solution was the softest. In summary, for soymilk products as uncongealed tofu, which required softer texture and higher water holding capacity, the soybeans should be soaked in alkaline solution with higher temperature (>25℃), and for tofu products that required certain gel strength, the soybeans should be soaked in alkaline solution at room temperature around 20℃ to achieve better gel quality.

    • SITU Huiyuan, LI Yumei, GAO Jialong, ZHANG Chaohua, QIN Xiaoming, CAO Wenhong, LIN Haisheng, ZHENG Huina

      2022,40(5):148-159, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202200248

      Abstract:

      To study the effects of temperature fluctuation on the freshness and quality of cold fresh cultured Trachinotus ovatus, the temperature conditions during cold chain circulation were simulated, and the variation trends of total number of colonies and cryophilic bacteria, pH value, TVB-N value, TBA value, and K value during sample circulation were analyzed, and the microbial community succession was tested by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that with the extension of circulation time, the total number of colonies and cryophilic bacteria in fish meat increased, accompanied by the deterioration of freshness indexes, in which the quality deterioration rate of breaking chain group was significantly higher than that of cold chain group (P<0.05). There was a significant correlation between microbial indexes and freshness indexes (P<0.05), which could well reflect the freshness loss of cold fresh Trachinotus ovatus during the circulation process. Alpha diversity index and principal component analysis showed that the diversity and structure of microbial community in Trachinotus ovatus were affected by the fluctuation of ambient temperature. The analysis of the bacterial phase during the circulation of the samples showed that the main dominant bacteria at phylum level were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. At genus level, Phenylobacterium was the main dominant bacteria. The secondary dominant bacteria in the cold chain group were Sphingomonas, Longilinea and unclassified_Anaerolineaceae. The secondary dominant bacteria in breaking chain group were Sporosarcina, Longilinea and unclassified_Anaerolineaceae. From the microbial metabolism perspective, it was found that the relative abundance of genes involved in metabolism in breaking chain group during refrigeration was higher than that in the cold chain group at the same time. The research results reflected the potential quality and safety risks of Trachinotus ovatus due to temperature fluctuation during cold chain circulation. At the same time, it was hoped to provide a reference for the development of targeted Trachinotus ovatus preservation technology and the construction of cold chain logistics from the microbial perspective.

    • DIAO Xiaoqin, SUN Weiting, XU Xiaojun, LI Xi, YANG Chang, LIU Dengyong, GUAN Haining, LIU Junhong, LIU Yang, LUO Dan

      2022,40(5):160-170, DOI: 10.12301/spxb202100660

      Abstract:

      In order to study the effects of the addition of soybean protein isolate hydrolysates (SPIH) obtained at different high pressures (0.1,100, 200,300MPa) on the gel properties and oxidative stability of mutton batters during storage, the textural properties, rheological properties, and microstructure of mutton batters were measured, compared with the control group of mutton batters with out hydrolysates addition. In addition, the effects of SPIH on color, acid value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value, carbonyl and sulfhydryl content of mutton batters were detected during refrigerated storage (4℃) for 8d. The results showed that compared with the control group, addition of SPIH obtained at different pressures significantly improved the hardness, elasticity and resilience of mutton batters (P<0.05). During heating process, the elasticity modulus G′ of mutton batters with SPIH obtained at different pressure decreased first and then increased, and during the whole heating process, G′ of mutton batters with the SPIH obtained at 200MPa was always the highest. Dynamic frequency scanning showed that G′ of mutton batters with the SPIH obtained at 200MPa was also the highest at the same oscillation frequency. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that compared with the control group, the microstructure of mutton batters with SPIH obtained at different pressure were more compact and uniform. With prolonged storage time, 2% SPIH obtained at different pressure could effectively inhibit the increase of b* value (yellowness), acid value, TBARS value, and carbonyl content, and inhibited the decrease of L* value (brightness), a* value (redness), and total sulfhydryl content. The SPIH obtained at 200MPa had the best effect on inhibiting the oxidation of fat and protein (P<0.05). Therefore, the SPIH obtained at 200MPa could improve gel properties and oxidation stability of mutton batters during storage.

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    • Effects of Ozone- Ice Slurry Treatment on Flavor of Pseudosciaena crocea Based on SPPE-GC-MS and Electronic Nose Analysis

      刘建华, ZHU Rongrong, DING Yuting

      Abstract:

      To investigate the effects of different ozone concentrations (0.00、1.00、3.00 、5.00 mg/L) in ozone-ice slurry (O-IS) treatment on the flavor of Pseudosciaena crocea during the storage period of excellent grade, the change pattern of volatile flavor substances was analyzed and discussed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) technique combined with electronic nose technique, and the fresh fish cubes and fish cubes preserved with traditional flake ice were used as a comparison. The results showed that a total of 35 volatile components, mainly aldehydes, hydrocarbons and alcohols, were detected in the Pseudosciaena crocea samples by SPME-GC-MS. Among them, the analysis of hexanal, heptanal and 1-octen-3-ol, which were the volatile substances that made the fish fishy, proved that 1.00 mg/L O-IS treatment could degrade the content of fishy substances in Pseudosciaena crocea while reducing the oxidation effect of ozone on the fish flesh. Electronic nose analysis found that the response to fishy odor substances in the O-IS treatment groups were significantly lower than that in the control group. Moreover, the electronic nose did not recognize the fishy substances after 1.00 mg/L O-IS treatment. This study showed that within the excellent grade of Pseudosciaena crocea, the 1.00 mg/L O-IS treatment could significantly reduce the fishy substance content of Pseudosciaena crocea.

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    Volume 40,2022 Issue 5
      Special Edition
    • Liangli (Lucy) Yu, LU Weiying, LIU Jie, DU Lijuan

      2016,34(6):1-6, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2016.06.001

      Abstract:

      Non-targeted detection technique has been extensively applied in the food safety and quality in recent years. In general, a non-targeted detection combines analytical approaches,fingerprinting techniques and chemometrics to detect toxicants or foreign components in foods without knowing their chemical structures. The key purpose of non-targeted detection technique is to detect whether the sample is abnormal, without prior knowledge of what caused the abnormality. This manuscript introduces and reviews the current progress and the prospect non-targeted food detection techniques, including chromatographic, mass spectrometric, spectroscopic, cell-based non-targeted detection techniques. Foods and ingredients including milk, Chinese wolfberries, Chinese angelica,oregano, honey, etc., were introduced. The non-targeted detection technique can help the healthy development of food industry and play an important role in protecting public welfare and human wellbeing.

    • WEI Yi-min, WEI Shuai, GUO Bo-li, TIAN Yang

      2013,31(2):1-6, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2013.02.001

      Abstract:

      Cadmium -Cd- , a kind of heavy metal pollutant, can enter the food chain though soil, dust, and crops. As a staple crop in China, rice can easily enrich Cd from soil, which can represent a health risk to consumers. Cd concentration in soil shows obvious heterogeneity in China. Cd concentration in rice is over the limit in some regions of China, due to the geological environment or soil pollution. At present, remedying polluted soil, screening low-accumulation material, and processing polluted rice have been developed to deal with Cd contamination. This paper summarized the present situation of cadmium contamination in rice and soil, analyzed the main factor of Cd enrichment in rice, reviewed the control technology of Cd contamination, and provided suggestions on Cd contamination research.

    • CHEN Feng, LI Hedong, WANG Yaqi, FU Haiyan, ZHENG Fuping

      2017,35(3):1-15, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2017.03.001

      Abstract:

      Chemometrics is a novel and unique interdisciplinary technique that integrates mathematics, statistics, chemistry and computer science. Pattern recognition and multivariate calibration method, as the core aspects of the technique, have exhibited overwhelming advantages in massive data mining and processing, as well as resolution and analysis of analytic signals. In addition, it is able to solve complex problems which are difficult to be solved by conventional analytic methods, resulting in the method to be widely used in many research fields, including food analysis. This paper reviews the fundamental principles of chemometrics in regards of its advantages and disadvantages,applications, and recent progresses. Furthermore, the review has pointed out problems which need to be solved in current researches, and highlighted the prospective aspects of the technique.

    • LI Jianrong, LI Tingting, DING Ting

      2016,34(1):1-8, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2016.01.001

      Abstract:

      Aquatic product freshness evaluation standards were reviewed in this paper, including the traditional freshness evaluation methods and some kinds of new methods in recent years. Meanwhile, shelf-life predicting models of aquatic products were also introduced, including primary shelf-life model, secondary shelf-life model and tertiary shelf-life model. Moreover, the main problems and the research tendency of freshness comprehensive evaluation and establishment of shelf-life model of aquatic products were discussed, aiming to provide the convenience for the future research of aquatic products.

    • LI Lin, WAN Liting, LI Bing

      2016,34(2):1-11, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2016.02.001

      Abstract:

      The existence of granular crystals seriously impairs the quality of plastic fats, and consequently, it is important to investigate the formation mechanisms and inhibitions of granular crystals in order to optimize the processing parameters and improve the product properties. The migration and aggregation of high-melting triglycerides as well as β polymorphism evolution are the possible mechanisms for the formation of granular crystals when temperature fluctuates. The fats composition and processing parameters have influences on the granular crystals formation such as shearing rates, temperature, cooling rates. To prevent their generation, modifying lipids by blending and interesterification and the application of emulsifiers were adopted to reduce the content of the high-melting triglycerides and stabilize the β′ polymorphism. Emulsifiers are mainly associated with the triglycerides present in the fat through acyl-acyl interactions, thus the chemical structures' similarity between the acyl groups would likely promote the cocrystallization, while the dissimilarities in fats structure might delay the nucleation and possibly inhibit crystal growth. Emulsifiers have different effects on the crystallization of plastic fats which strongly depend on their concentration and the molecular structure. In addition, when the degree of undercooling is high enough, addictive effects of emulsifiers will be weakened.

    • CHEN Li-jun, JIANG Tie-min

      2013,31(4):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2013.04.001

      Abstract:

      The dairy industry is related to the people's livelihood and a lot of attentions have been paid to its current situation and future development tendency. This paper introduced the current situation of Chinese dairy industry and analyzed the main problems occurred during the developing process. Moreover, the development tendencies of the basic research, and quality control were also discussed.

    • WANG Shuo, ZHAO Yijie, LU Yang

      2015,33(4):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2015.04.001

      Abstract:

      In this paper,the principles and the application of the molecular imprinted polymer-based sensors, such as lectrochemical sensors,piezoelectric sensors, and optical sensors, were discussed. Meanwhile, the developing trend of the molecular imprinted polymer-based sensor was addressed.

    • JIA Yingmin, LIU Yangliu, CHEN Zhou

      2017,35(6):1-9, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2017.06.001

      Abstract:

      For problems of food safety caused by microbial contamination and environmental safety due to drug-resistant strains, the development of emerging natural food additives with broad-spectrum and high-efficiency has been vital study trends in a modern food safety. Antimicrobial peptides(AMPs) are paid much attention for its advantage of broad-spectrum, good stability, unique antimicrobial mechanism of action and lower residue. With the further research, AMPs are expected to play a vital role in the application of food safety. Considering it, AMPs-related researches abroad were concluded in recent years. A review of the exploring and classification situation of AMPs,the development of bio-resistance and mechanism for bacteria, fungi, parasites, virus and tumor cells was provided. Meanwhile, the potential application fields of AMPs in food safety and scientific problems urgent to solve were analyzed. The resolution strategy also is provided for researchers as a reference in the field.

    • FAN Shuangxi, CHEN Xiangning

      2014,32(5):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2014.05.001

      Abstract:

      The current situation, main existing problems and trends of post-harvest processing of leafy vegetables were clarified in this study, and the key technologies to be solved during leafy vegetables processing were also discussed. The solution methods of fresh-cut process, freeze-drying process, disinfection process, packaging technology and equipment automation were emphatically analyzed. All these would give a clear instruction for the processing of leafy vegetables.

    • SHAN Yang

      2012,30(3):1-12, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2012.03.001

      Abstract:

      China is the world's largest fruits processing country. The fruits processing industries have become an industry with comparatively superiority and international competitive capability. The importance to develop the processing industry of fruit was elaborated in this article as well as the overseas trend and current situation. The major restriction of the development were analysed, and the countermeasures for the development of this industry in China were also pointed out.

    • Commission Articles by Expert
    • ZHU Yun-ping, YUAN Zuo-yun, LV Yue-gang

      2011,29(1):15-17, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2011.01.004

      Abstract:

      The water and oil content in the instant noodle are two important factors for the quality of the noodle. In this paper, the effect of fried time and fried temperature on the quality of the instant noodle was investigated. The results showed that the longer fried time and higher fried temperature would lead the lower water and higher oil content in the noodle. In addition, the effect of fried time was correlative with that of fried temperature on the quality of the noodle.

    • Special Edition
    • CHEN Jian, ZHOU Shenghu, WU Junjun, ZHOU Jingwen, DU Guocheng

      2015,33(1):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2015.01.001

      Abstract:

      Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites, which are valuable natural products widely used in human health and nutrition due to its biochemical properties such as antiviral, antiobesity, and anticancer. The efficient production of pure flavonoid compounds through plant extraction or chemical production continues to be a major challenge for drug development. Hence, the microbial production of flavonoids has emerged as an interesting and commercially attractive approach. The emergence of systems metabolic engineering offers new perspectives on strain and process optimization. In this review, the strategies of systems metabolic engineering used to overcome these challenges are summarized, which will offer insights into overcoming the limitations and challenges of large-scale microbial production of these important pharmaceutical compounds.

    • ZHAO Jie-wen, HUANG Xiao-wei, ZOU Xiao-bo, HUANG Lin, SHI Ji-yong.

      2013,31(1):9-13, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2013.01.002

      Abstract:

      Olfaction visualization technology is a gas imaging technology and a new branch of artificial olfactory technology, which can solve common problems of traditional gas sensor. In order to detect the dominant spoilage bacteria (Clostridium, Brochothix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas) and evaluate freshness of pork, porphyrins and pH indicators were used as gas-sensing materials. The three spoilage bacteria were inoculated into three groups of pork samples and stored under three temperatures (16,4℃and 20℃). The images before and after the colorimetric sensor array interacted with pork's volatile flavors were collected, then image processing techniques was used to get digital signals which reflected the freshness of pork. The results showed that the olfaction visualization technology can be applied in rapid detection of dominant spoilage bacteria and evaluation freshness of pork.

    • Clean Production
    • ZHANG Zheng-jie, WANG Ping

      2011,29(1):54-58, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2011.01.012

      Abstract:

      The effects of culture conditions on the growth of Chlorella. sp were studied. The nutrient factors showed obvious effect on Chlorella.sp. The culture conditions based on BG-11 were optimized by orthogonal experiments: Na2CO 3 0.02g/L, the initial pH 6, the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus 30, inoculum 5%, temperature 25℃, illumination 8800lx. Under the optimal culture conditions, the growth rate of Chlorella.sp was enhanced significantly.

    • Special Edition
    • RAO Pingfan, LIU Shutao, ZHOU Jianwu, GUO Jingke, KE Lijing

      2015,33(3):1-4, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2015.03.001

      Abstract:

      Started from food processing, modern food science and food industry have provided the world enormous amount of food and always played a vital role in the development and evolution of human society. To date, food science has systematically studied the food storage, nutrition and sensory characteristics, while the interaction between food and body remains as a puzzle except a few pieces revealed by nutrition science and toxicology. Modern food industry has totally changed the way food is produced and consumed, and more importantly the way food interacts with human body. The ignorance of such changes in food science has made the debates in safety and health risks of industry food even more confusing. Three research topics are proposed for food-body interaction:elucidate the existing status of food compositions; interpret the body response to food; methods to utilise the complementary characteristics of different food compositions. From these new perspectives, some unique approaches and original discoveries of food science ought to be achieved, to provide answers to the major criticism upon food industry and transform food science to an intact science of food, an independent discipline of science.

    • Food Chemistry & Technology
    • WANG Shao-yun, ZHAO Jun, WU Jin-hong, CHEN Lin

      2011,29(4):50-57, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2011.04.013

      Abstract:

      Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are the thermal hysteresis proteins that have the ability to modify the growth and inhibit the recrystallization of the ice. Antifreeze proteins aroused great interests of many researchers due to its special structure and functions. In this article, the recent advance in antifreeze protein was reviewed, and the types, properties, measurements, gene structures of antifreeze protein, and its applications in food industry were introduced. The application trials indicated that antifreeze protein could significantly improve the qualities of frozen foods, which suggested the potential food additives of antifreeze protein in future frozen food industry.

    • Special Edition
    • LIN Hong, LI Meng, CAO Li-min

      2012,30(1):1-5, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2012.01.001

      Abstract:

      The research on aquatic products safety and the quality control technology was summarized and analyzed to reveal the present situation of aquatic products safety and quality control in China. Most of the research was focus on quality detection and control technology, others were about tracing system, early warning mechanism and risk assessment. At present, the enormous progress was made in technologies of quality detection and control. However, comparing with the advanced technology at abroad, the technology and management system in China still need to be improved. In the future, the aquatic food quality security technology should be promoted furtherly.

    • Foundational Research
    • SHEN Yun-gang, XIAO Zhu-qing, CHEN Shun-sheng, ZHANG Ying-li, JIANG Wei, LAI Ke-qiang

      2013,31(5):37-42, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2013.05.007

      Abstract:

      There has been growing concern about the frying oil quality due to its remarkable deterioration during the frying process. To investigate the performance of LF-NMR in the rapid determination of frying oil from various frying conditions, deep frying oil samples (n=107) including 96 soy bean oil samples and 11 shortening samples were collected from street vendors in 10 districts of Shanghai. Total polar compounds (TPC) and viscosity of the oil samples were determined. TPC values of 6 oil samples (56% of all the oil samples) were above the national standard for frying oil, indicating the quality problem of frying oil from the street vendors. The linear analysis showed a good linear relationship (R2=0892) between TPC and viscosity, while R2 was 0927 after the removal of shortening samples. After the analysis of the ratio of T21 areas (S21) in transverse relaxation (T2) spectra, the good correlations between S21 and TPC and viscosity were obtained and R2 was 0860 and 0840. After removing the shortening samples, R2 slightly increased to 0865 and 0854. The results demonstrate that LF-NMR has the potential to rapidly evaluate the quality of deep frying oil.

    • Expert Forum
    • ZHAO Zhi-hui

      2012,30(4):8-11, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2012.04.002

      Abstract:

      Mycotoxins, including aflatoxins (AFT), ochratoxin (OT), fumonisin (F), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and patulin (PAT) frequently contaminating agricultural products and feed were summarized. And then the influences of mycotoxin contaminants on human health and animal production were expatiated.

    • LUO Zhi-wen, LIN Jian-long, YU Xiu-hong

      2010,28(2):66-70, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-6002.2010.02.015

      Abstract:

      Aim at the problems about camera calibration for train wheel flange of dynamic testing system,the paper discusses the radial constraint-based camera calibration,chooses the camera calibration which contains distortion factors and developed the method of it by LabVIEW. This method makes use of the LabVIEW graphical development environment, embed core programs written in Matlab, has powerful data processing and nice interactive interface.

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    Competent Authority:Beijing Municipal Commission of Education
    Sponsor:Beijing Technology and Business University
    Publishing Institute:Editorial Department of Journal of Food Science and Technology
    Add:33 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, China
    Tel:010-68984535/68986223
    Standard Periodical Number:ISSN 2095-6002
      10-1151/TS