(四川大学 华西公共卫生学院/华西第四医院, 四川 成都 610041)
(West China School of Public Health/West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China)
短链脂肪酸(short chain fatty acids, SCFAs)作为肠道微生物的重要代谢产物,将宿主饮食与肠道微生物之间复杂的相互作用关系有机地联系在一起。SCFAs是近年来微生物代谢产物与人体健康科研领域研究热点,SCFAs不仅作为肠道上皮细胞的重要能源物质,也是游离脂肪酸受体的天然配体,因此发挥着多种健康作用,如调节脂质代谢、免疫、炎症反应和食欲等。阐述了肠源性SCFAs前体物质的主要食物来源,详细探讨了参与SCFAs生成的肠道微生物及代谢途径,并提出了肠源性SCFAs的饮食调控策略。从化学结构上看,SCFAs是一类碳原子数小于7的挥发性有机酸,肠源性SCFAs主要包括乙酸、丙酸、丁酸,它们主要是由SCFAs前体物质在肠道菌群的酵解作用下转化生成。SCFAs前体物质的食物来源多种多样,不易消化的碳水化合物是SCFAs的主要食物前体,包含抗性淀粉、非淀粉多糖、低聚糖等。肠道中的多种微生物能够通过不同代谢途径独立或者协同利用SCFAs前体物质产生SCFAs。补充富含SCFAs前体物质的食物,不仅能够影响肠源性SCFAs的含量,还可选择性地促进肠道中有益菌的生长,从质和量上维护肠道微生态稳态、直接或者间接地调节机体多种生理功能,促进人体健康功能。希望可为预防和治疗相关代谢和免疫疾病提供新的思路。
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as important metabllites of gut microorganisms, organically link the complex interactions between host nutrition and gut microbiota. In recent years, accumulating scientific evidences have well indicated the strong relationship between SCFAs and host health. SCFAs have been found to be both the preferred energy source for intestinal epithelial cells and the natural ligands for free fatty acids receptors. Therefore, SCFAs play a multiple health role. SCFAs are essential in the regulation of lipid metabolism, immunity, inflammatory response, and appetite. The food sources of gut-derived SCFAs precursors, gut microbes involved in SCFAs metabolism and their metabolic pathways were summarized. Dietary approaches on gut-derived SCFAs regulation was further discussed. SCFAs are defined as volatile fatty acids, of which the number of carbon atoms is less than 7. The gut-derived SCFAs, in particular, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, are fermented and transformed from SCFAs precursors by gut microbiota. The source of gut-derived SCFAs precursors are various, and non-digestible carbohydrates such as resistant starch, non-starch polysaccharides and oligosaccharide are considered as the main SCFAs precursors in food. SCFAs are produced through different metabolic pathways from SCFAs precursors by various gut microorganisms independently or synergistically. Supplementation with foods rich in SCFAs precursors not only affects the content of gut-derived SCFAs, but also maintains and enhances the steady state of gut microecology by selectively promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, thereby regulating physiological function and contribute to host health. This review could provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of related metabolic and immune diseases.