Liquid-Liquid Extraction Technology for Aroma and Flavor Compounds in Traditional Fermented Beverages and Seasonings

(School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China)

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Foundation: National Key Research and Development Program of China (2022YFD2101201).

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    The aroma and flavor of traditional fermented beverages and seasonings is an important aspect of determining their quality. The use of modern flavor chemistry theory and methods to study their aroma and flavor has been recognized by the industry. One of the most important operations in the series of studies on aroma and flavor compounds is the isolation or extraction of flavor compounds, which involves the isolation of flavor interfering substances or matrices. If the target flavor compounds could not be extracted at the sampling, the correct results could not be obtained. Most isolation and extraction techniques can be used for this process, but some researchers have found that liquid-liquid extraction technology could be the best method for extracting and isolating the aroma and flavor of traditional fermented beverages and seasonings. Before liquid-liquid extraction, the pre-treatment methods of solid, liquid, semi-liquid, and bioactive raw materials are different. The principle for selecting the extraction solvent is that the characteristic aroma and flavor compounds, all flavor compounds, and target flavor compounds of the original sample must be extracted. The selection of liquid-liquid extraction methods should consider the volatility, boiling point, polarity, stability, concentration, distribution in the sample, and other characteristics of the flavor compounds to be tested. The ideal liquid-liquid extraction result is the simultaneous extraction of polar and non-polar compounds, without causing thermal degradation and redox of flavor compounds, without changing pH value, and without significant loss of high volatile compounds. Due to the presence of compounds, such as proteins, sugars, and fats in the matrix, emulsification often occurs during liquid-liquid extraction. Demulsification could be achieved through methods such as salt addition, ultrasound, freeze-centrifugation, solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), glass wool filtration, phase filtration, addition of solvents with different polarity, and addition of precipitant. Due to the complex composition of aroma and flavor compounds in the extraction solution, direct GC-MS or GC-O analysis could result in overlapping peaks of compound coeluting and interference of aromas. The extraction solution could be fractioned into acidic, alkaline, and neutral fractions, and further analysis could be carried out by combining chromatographic separation techniques such as silica gel column or normal phase column. The systematic reviews of the liquid-liquid extraction technology of traditional fermented beverages and seasonings flavors could inspire the research ideas of flavor researchers.

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FAN Wenlai. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Technology for Aroma and Flavor Compounds in Traditional Fermented Beverages and Seasonings[J]. Journal of Food Science and Technology,2023,41(3):19-27.

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  • Received:May 01,2023
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  • Online: June 19,2023
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