Generation Mechanism of Gut-Derived Short Chain Fatty Acids and Its Dietary Regulation

(West China School of Public Health/West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China)

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General Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (81973042).

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    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as important metabllites of gut microorganisms, organically link the complex interactions between host nutrition and gut microbiota. In recent years, accumulating scientific evidences have well indicated the strong relationship between SCFAs and host health. SCFAs have been found to be both the preferred energy source for intestinal epithelial cells and the natural ligands for free fatty acids receptors. Therefore, SCFAs play a multiple health role. SCFAs are essential in the regulation of lipid metabolism, immunity, inflammatory response, and appetite. The food sources of gut-derived SCFAs precursors, gut microbes involved in SCFAs metabolism and their metabolic pathways were summarized. Dietary approaches on gut-derived SCFAs regulation was further discussed. SCFAs are defined as volatile fatty acids, of which the number of carbon atoms is less than 7. The gut-derived SCFAs, in particular, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, are fermented and transformed from SCFAs precursors by gut microbiota. The source of gut-derived SCFAs precursors are various, and non-digestible carbohydrates such as resistant starch, non-starch polysaccharides and oligosaccharide are considered as the main SCFAs precursors in food. SCFAs are produced through different metabolic pathways from SCFAs precursors by various gut microorganisms independently or synergistically. Supplementation with foods rich in SCFAs precursors not only affects the content of gut-derived SCFAs, but also maintains and enhances the steady state of gut microecology by selectively promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, thereby regulating physiological function and contribute to host health. This review could provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of related metabolic and immune diseases.

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HE Fang, LI Jinxing, WU Simou. Generation Mechanism of Gut-Derived Short Chain Fatty Acids and Its Dietary Regulation[J]. Journal of Food Science and Technology,2023,41(1):10-21.

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  • Received:January 01,2023
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  • Online: February 09,2023
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