(National Health Commission Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment,China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment,Beijing 100022,China)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is involved in veterinary medicine, food, environment, medicine, and other fields. It endangers food safety, international trade, economic development, and life health. It has become a major public health problem facing the world. China was the world's largest producer and consumer of antimicrobials, about 60% of which were used in breeding industry. Due to its wide spread use and abuse in the breeding industry, many antimicrobial resistant bacteria appeared and spreaded rapidly. Following the “One Health” strategy, the United Nations encouraged countries to establish cross-sectoral AMR coordination mechanisms. This research compared the development, framework, and some monitoring results of foodborne bacterial antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems in China, the United States, and Europe. National surveillance systems basically covered population and food animal and food-related foodborne bacterial antimicrobial resistance, while also monitoring the use of antimicrobials in human medicine and food animals. American and European countries and regions started earlier and had relatively perfect systems. Through the development of nearly 30 years, they have mastered the baseline level of drug resistance and drug use of foodborne bacteria. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of surveillance data can play a risk management role, like optimizing surveillance programs (such as increasing surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in pets and environmental monitoring) and proposing interventions to limit the spread of resistant bacteria. The surveillance system of foodborne bacterial antimicrobial resistance started late in China. The surveillance of foodborne bacterial antimicrobial resistance in humans, food animals and related foods developed rapidly for 20 years, while the monitoring of antibiotic drug use in food animals began in 2018, and further improvement was needed for all aspects. At the same time, the EU monitoring system implemented the mechanism of breaking down departments to achieve data sharing. At present, different departments responsible for foodborne bacteria antimicrobial resistance monitoring systems have been established in our country. However, the data sharing mechanism has not been realized, and data “chimney” and information isolated island existed, which made it impossible to maximize the utility of existing data resources. By discussing the experiences of the United States and Europe, this research has the following inspirations for the antimicrobial resistance surveillance system in China. It is necessary to gradually improve the antimicrobial resistance surveillance system, establish a multi-sectoral collaborative governance mechanism, and accelerate the application of new technologies in data mining, to comprehensively improve the ability to curb bacterial resistance and protect people's health.
LI Ning, BAI Li. Comparative Study on Foodborne Bacterial Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System in China, America and Europe and Its Implication[J]. Journal of Food Science and Technology,2023,(1):1-9, 21.Copy