(1.南昌大学 食品科学与技术国家重点实验室, 江西 南昌 330047;2.南昌大学 食品学院, 江西 南昌 330047;3.江西省食物过敏重点实验室, 江西 南昌 330047;4.南昌大学 中德联合研究院, 江西 南昌 330047)
(1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology,Nanchang University,Nanchang 330047,China;2. College of Food Science & Technology,Nanchang University,Nanchang 330047,China;3.Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Food Allergy,Nanchang 330047,China;4.Sino German Joint Research Institute,Nanchang University,Nanchang 330047,China)
As a common food constituent, fat could interact with cow's milk allergens, and thereby affecting the extraction effect and detection accuracy of allergens. However, research on degreasing methods for high-fat complex food matrices was rarely reported. Chocolates containing cow's milk allergens were used to simulate the high-fat complex matrix and degreased by n-hexane, isopropanol, ethyl acetate and lipase. The degreasing rate and protein loss rate of simulated matrix were determined. The changes of protein structure, particle size, fat distribution and microstructure were compared, and the concentration of major milk allergens extracted from simulated matrix were determined by indirect ELISA before and after degreasing. The results showed that the sample treated with n-hexane had the highest degreasing rate (87.87%), and the lowest protein loss rate (6.86%). Degreasing would change the spatial structure of proteins, with the overall structure changing from compact to loose, and there was no obvious changes in protein in the n-hexane and ethyl acetate treatment groups. The particle size of protein decreased slightly after degreasing, but the isopropanol treatment caused the protein to aggregate into larger particles, and the particle size increased from 297.9nm to 445.1nm. After degreasing by n-hexane and ethyl acetate, the fat distribution in simulated matrix was more uniform and the fat droplets became smaller. The microstructure of the simulated matrix changed from a dense and smooth clump to an incompact and porous structure, while the isopropanol and lipase groups still showed partial agglomeration. The indirect ELISA results showed that the extraction rate of casein in the ethyl acetate group increased by 61.02%, and the concentrations of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin were the highest in the n-hexane group, which were 0.73mg/mL and 1.89mg/mL, respectively. n-Hexane degreasing treatments could significantly improve the extraction effect of cow's milk allergens in high-fat complex matrix, hoping that the results could provide reference for the accurate detection of allergens in high-fat complex matrix foods.