浸泡条件对豆乳凝胶性质的影响
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(1.中国农业大学 植物蛋白与谷物加工北京市重点实验室/食品科学与营养工程学院, 北京 100083;2.北京康得利智能科技有限公司, 北京 100074)

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Effect of Soaking Conditions on Properties of Soymilk Gel
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(1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Protein and Cereal Processing/College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China;2.Beijing Kangdeli Intelligent Technology Co Ltd, Beijing 100074, China)

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    摘要:

    大豆浸泡是豆乳凝胶(豆腐、豆花等)生产中的重要环节,改变浸泡条件对豆乳凝胶品质可产生不同程度的影响,而且不同的豆乳凝胶产品要求的硬度、弹性等标准各异。为明确不同浸泡条件下的豆乳凝胶品质性质,提出适于不同加工环境和不同产品类型的原料浸泡条件,分别使用碱液与蒸馏水对大豆进行浸泡,并选择4、25、37、55℃这4个典型温度为作用条件,对大豆的吸水率进行测定,建立了吸水动力模型,比较了以葡萄糖酸-δ-内酯为凝固剂制备豆乳凝胶的得率、豆乳蛋白质提取率、豆乳凝胶形成过程以及豆乳凝胶品质。结果发现:未使用碱液时,随着浸泡温度的升高,凝乳得率、豆乳蛋白质含量以及豆乳凝胶硬度均略有升高,在37℃后出现下降的趋势,其中25℃浸泡最有利于蛋白质的提取,豆乳凝胶强度最强,达18.14N;使用碱液后,豆乳蛋白质提取率和凝胶保水性均有所提升。因此在实际生产中,当浸泡温度较低(20℃以下)时,采用低浓度的碱液浸泡有助于提高蛋白质提取率和豆乳凝胶的保水性。进一步通过响应面试验分析发现,当温度在21℃时,使用碱液浸泡可以使豆乳凝胶得到最大的保水性;温度在22℃时其凝胶硬度最大,46℃时凝胶硬度最小。研究结果可知,对于豆花这类要求质地软、保水性大的豆乳凝胶产品来说,可考虑使用浸泡温度较高(大于25℃)的碱液浸泡大豆;对于要求一定凝胶强度的豆腐类产品来说,可考虑在20℃左右常温条件下使用碱液浸泡,以达到更好的凝胶品质。

    Abstract:

    Soybean soaking is an important part in the production of soymilk gel (tofu, uncongealed tofu) and soaking conditions could affect the quality of soymilk gel in varying degrees. Different hardness and elasticity were required by different soymilk gel products. To clarify the quality characteristics of soymilk gel under different soaking conditions and determine the suitable soaking conditions for different processing environments and product types, alkaline solution and distilled water were employed to soak soybeans. The water absorption rates of soybean were determined under four typical temperatures as 4℃, 25℃, 37℃ and 55℃ to establish the water absorption dynamic model. The quality indexes including soymilk gel yield, protein extraction rate, gelling process and gel quality of soymilk after coagulated by gluconic acid-δ-lactone under above temperatures were determined and compared. The results showed that when soaking with distilled water, soymilk gel yield, protein concentration of soymilk and gel hardness increased slightly with the increase of soaking temperature and decreased at 37℃. Soaking at 25℃ was most conductive for protein extraction, and the strength of soymilk gel was the strongest, reaching 18.14N. After soaking with alkaline solution, the protein extraction rate and gel water holding capacity of soymilk increased. Therefore, in practical production, when the tempeatures were lower than 20℃, soaking with low concentration of alkali solution could improve the protein extraction rate and the water holding capacity of soymilk gel. After response surface analysis, it was found that when the temperature reached 21℃, the maximum water holding capacity of the gel could be obtained by soaking with alkali solution, and the hardness of the gel was the largest when the temperature was 22℃. At 46℃, the hardness of the gel treated with alkali solution was the softest. In summary, for soymilk products as uncongealed tofu, which required softer texture and higher water holding capacity, the soybeans should be soaked in alkaline solution with higher temperature (>25℃), and for tofu products that required certain gel strength, the soybeans should be soaked in alkaline solution at room temperature around 20℃ to achieve better gel quality.

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徐婧婷,李木子,李玥,郭顺堂.浸泡条件对豆乳凝胶性质的影响[J].食品科学技术学报,2022,40(5):139-147.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-08-04
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-10-12
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