(1.上海应用技术大学 香料香精技术与工程学院, 上海 201418;2.国际香精香料公司, 美国 新泽西 07735;3.宾夕法尼亚州立大学 食品科学系, 美国 宾夕法尼亚 16803) 收稿日期:2022-08-17 基金项目:上海高校高峰高原学科建设计划项目(1021GN203004005)。第一作者:冯 涛,男,教授,博士,主要从事食品风味化学方面的研究。
(1.School of Perfume and Aroma Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technology,Shanghai 201418,China;2.International Flavors & Fragrances Inc, New Jersey 07735, USA;3.Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania 16803, USA)
Flavorings play a pivotal role in food industry as an important kind of food additives. However, improper use of food flavorings can cause food safety risks. There are thousands of flavorings allowed using in food in the world at present. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate regulations and standards for supervision and safety assessment. Relatively perfect supervision and safety assessment systems for food flavorings has formed in EU and USA over the years, which played a vital role in international supervision and safety evaluation of flavorings. The regulatory agencies on food flavorings in EU and USA were reviewed. Regulations of food flavorings in USA were mainly conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The safety assessment of flavorings was handed over to the Food Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA), which was mainly responsible for security of the food flavorings through the FEMA GRAS program. The supervision of food flavorings in EU was mainly performed by the Council of Europe (COE) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Wherein, EFSA was the authoritative organization that formulated food safety regulations and mainly published the list of EU-licensed food flavorings. In addition, safety assessment methods including exposure estimation and toxicological assessment were reviewed. The PCI×10 method was most acceptable for exposure estimation in USA, while the MSDI method was considered to be the most suitable method for intake estimation of general flavorings by EFSA. In terms of toxicological assessment, the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) method was currently utilized for genotoxic risk assessment both in EU and USA. The safety evaluation systems of flavorings in EU and USA were highly similar, which could also provide guidance and reference for the improvement of the supervision and safety assessment system for food flavorings in China.