湖南常见辣椒品种游离氨基酸主成分分析及综合评价
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(1.湖南农业大学 食品科学技术学院, 湖南 长沙 410128;2.盐津铺子食品股份有限公司, 湖南 长沙 410000;3.长沙坛坛香调料食品有限公司, 湖南 长沙 410128;4.湖南省农业科学院 农产品加工研究所, 湖南 长沙 410125)

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Principal Component Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Free Amino Acids of Different Peppers in Hunan
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(1.College of Food Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China;2.Yanker Shop Food Co Ltd, Changsha 410000, China;3.Changsha Tantanxiang Biotechnology Co Ltd, Changsha 410128, China;4.Agricultural Product Processing Institute, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, China)

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    摘要:

    游离氨基酸参与辣椒中风味物质的合成,其种类及含量与辣椒品种密切相关。采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法对湖南常见大红椒、青尖椒、螺丝椒、小米椒、小红椒、大青椒6种辣椒的游离氨基酸进行分析,明确不同辣椒品种游离氨基酸组成差异,以期为合理开发和利用辣椒资源提供理论依据。结果表明:6种辣椒中共检出24种游离氨基酸,其中青尖椒、螺丝椒、大青椒未检出胱氨酸,大红椒、小米椒、小红椒未检出羟脯氨酸。相比于其他游离氨基酸,各品种中天冬酰胺、谷氨酰胺、天冬氨酸、丝氨酸、γ-氨基丁酸、赖氨酸含量较高。6种辣椒中总游离氨基酸质量分数在7.28~19.36mg/g(以干质量计),其中大红椒总游离氨基酸含量最高,螺丝椒含量最低。通过味道强度值分析发现:鲜味氨基酸是辣椒的主要呈味氨基酸,其中谷氨酸、天冬氨酸和赖氨酸对鲜味贡献较大,其他呈味氨基酸起到协调风味的作用;大红椒与小米椒较其他品种辣椒鲜味更为突出。聚类分析表明:大红椒与小米椒、大青椒与青尖椒、小红椒与螺丝椒品质较为接近;部分氨基酸,如苏氨酸与天冬酰胺、精氨酸与谷氨酰胺、亮氨酸与异亮氨酸、苯丙氨酸与脯氨酸呈现较强的相关性。结合主成分分析及综合评价发现,大红椒、小米椒、大青椒中游离氨基酸品质优于青尖椒、小红椒、螺丝椒。

    Abstract:

    The free amino acids (FAAs) are involved in the synthesis of flavor compounds in peppers. The types and contents of FAAs are closely related to pepper varieties. FAAs contents of six cultivar peppers including Dahong, Qingjian, Luosi, Xiaomi, Xiaohong and Daqing in Hunan province were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the FAAs composition of different peppers was different, which provided a theoretical basis for the rational development and utilization of pepper resources. Twenty-four FAAs were identified in six peppers. Cystine was not detected in Qingjian, Luosi and Daqing, and hydroxyproline was not detected in Dahong, Xiaomi and Xiaohong. The contents of asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid, serine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and lysine were higher than other FAAs. The content of total free amino acids in six peppers ranged from 7.28mg/g to 19.36mg/g (dry weight). The content of total free amino acids in Dahong was the highest, while the lowest was Luosi. Through the analysis of taste active value, it was found that umami amino acid was the main delicious amino acids of peppers. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and lysine contributed a lot to the umami taste, and other flavor amino acids played a role in coordinating the flavor. Dahong and Xiaomi were more delicious than other peppers based on taste active value. Cluster analysis showed the quality of some peppers was close, including Dahong and Xiaomi, Daqing and Qingjian, Xiaohong and Luosi. Some amino acids such as threonine and asparagine, arginine and glutamine, leucine and isoleucine, phenylalanine and proline showed a strong correlation. Combined with principal component analysis and comprehensive evaluation, the quality of FAAs in Dahong, Xiaomi and Daqing was better than that in Qingjian, Xiaohong and Luosi.

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葛帅,王蓉蓉,王颖瑞,叶美玲,覃业优,丁胜华,周辉,蒋立文,邓放明.湖南常见辣椒品种游离氨基酸主成分分析及综合评价[J].食品科学技术学报,2021,39(2):91-102.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-03-09
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-04-01
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