Aroma is one of the most important quality standards of fruits and their products. Maintaining natural flavor, improving aroma and product quality are always the pursued goals of the industry, which determinated the critical importance of accurate and comprehensive analysis of aroma substances in fruits. Due to the complexity of fruit matrix and the low content of aroma compounds, especially trace amounts and instability of some key aroma compounds, the accurate analysis of fruit aroma components is a complicated and difficult work. The extraction methods of fruit aroma substance and the current research direction of fruit aroma, and the key aroma material identification method were summarized, and the impact on the overall aroma of fruit was introduced from the aspect of perceptual interaction. Finally, the improvement and the research trend of the analytic methods of fruit aroma compounds were prospected, which might provide a theoretical foundation of aroma research for developing high quality fruit and its processed products.