红鳍东方鲀肌肉组织及生化组成特性研究
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(大连海洋大学 食品科学与工程学院, 辽宁 大连 116023)

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Study on Muscle Texture and Biochemical Properties of Farmed Takifugu rubripes
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(College of Food Science and Engineering, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China)

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    摘要:

    为系统解读红鳍东方鲀的原料学属性,针对其主要可食部分即肌肉组织的组织学、一般化学组成以及含氮物等特性进行了分析;重点探明其蛋白质、核苷酸关联物及游离氨基酸的组成特性。结果表明:红鳍东方鲀肌肉与普通白肉鱼具有相同的高蛋白质、低脂肪的特点,粗蛋白占干质量的86.30%,粗脂肪仅占0.66%。组织形态学观察发现其肌肉结缔组织异常丰富;进一步分析发现,胶原蛋白占肌肉组织干质量的质量分数高达4.53%。含氮物分析结果表明:肌肉组织中盐溶性蛋白含量最高,占总含氮物的40.76%,其次分别是水溶性蛋白25.71%、不溶性蛋白13.24%以及碱溶性蛋白5.18%;红鳍东方鲀肌肉中富含非蛋白氮,占总含氮物的15.10%。SDS-PAGE分析显示,水溶及盐溶性组分中蛋白质种类较为丰富,碱溶组分中蛋白质种类简单,不溶性组分主要呈现胶原蛋白图谱。分别提取肌肉和内皮中的胶原蛋白并进一步比较发现,二者呈现相似的图谱构成条带,在110kDa以上均有3条明显条带,分别为β肽链和2条α肽链。核苷酸分析表明:健康活体速杀的红鳍东方鲀肌肉中三磷酸腺苷含量高达4.32μmol/g,其降解产物中,最突出的是次黄嘌呤核苷酸1.35μmol/g,二磷酸腺苷和一磷酸腺苷含量则较低,其他进一步降解产物含量几乎为0。在红鳍东方鲀肌肉中共检测到16种游离氨基酸,其中赖氨酸、精氨酸、苏氨酸3种氨基酸含量较高,其次具有呈味功能的谷氨酸、甘氨酸和丙氨酸的含量也相对较高。

    Abstract:

    In order to explore the quality traits of Takifugu rubripes as sushi-grade seafood, microstructure and biochemical and nitrogenous compounds properties of Takifugu rubripes skeletal muscle were investigated. The muscle protein composition, ATP-related compounds and free amino acids were emphatically explored. The results showed that the skeletal muscle of Takifugu rubripes presented high-protein and low-fat characteristics which were similar with white fish species. And the crude protein was accounted for 86.30% of the skeletal muscle dry basis, while the fat was only accounted for 0.66%. Histomorphological observations revealed that the connective tissue in the Takifugu rubripes muscle was abnormally abundant. Further analysis found that the collagen content was accounted for 4.53% of the muscle dry basis. The results of nitrogen components analysis showed that the content of salt-soluble protein was the highest, accounting for 40.76% of total nitrogen components, followed by the water-soluble protein 25.71%, insoluble protein 13.24% and alkali-soluble protein 5.18%. In addition, the non-protein nitrogen compounds were rich in the Takifugu rubripes muscle, accounting for 15.10% of total nitrogen components. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the water-soluble fraction and salt-soluble fraction had a wide variety of protein components compared to the alkali-soluble fractions. The insoluble component was appeared as collagen map. Collagen from muscle and endothelial tissue were extracted which presented smilar bands, and 3 distinct bands(molecular weight above 110kDa) were consisted of β chain and two α chains, respectively. ATP-related compounds analysis showed that the ATP content in the humane slaughtered Takifugu rubripes skeletal muscle was high up to 4.32μmol/g, and the main degradation product IMP (1.35μmol/g) was obtained. And other further degradation products and content is almost zero. A total of 16 free amino acids were detected in the Takifugu rubeipes muscle. The content of lysine, arginine and threonine were higher, followed by glutamic acid, glycine and alanine, which had flavor function.

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王选飞,刘俊荣,衣鸿莉,冷寒冰,田元勇,徐昙烨.红鳍东方鲀肌肉组织及生化组成特性研究[J].食品科学技术学报,2020,38(6):93-102.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-08-01
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  • 在线发布日期: 2020-12-28
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