基于酵母菌多物混合共酵对咖啡赋香风味品质的影响
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云南农业大学食品科学技术学院

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云南农业大学自然科学青年科研基金(2016ZR04);云南省高校食品加工与安全控制重点实验室开放基金项目(YJK〔2014〕16 KF06);云南省建立农科教相结合新型农业社会化服务体系试点项目(2014NG004-08);云南特色咖啡加工关键技术研究与产品开发(KX141733)


Effect of Fermentation of Mixed Coffee by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Flavor Quality of Coffee
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College of food science and technology,Yunnan Agricultural University

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Yunnan Agricultural University Natural Science Youth Research Fund (2016ZR04); Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Processing and Safety Control Open Fund Project (YJK[2014]16 KF06); Yunnan Province established agricultural science and education combined with new agricultural socialization service system pilot project (2014NG004-08); Key Technology Research and Product Development of Yunnan Special Coffee Processing (KX141733)

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    摘要:

    中国咖啡主产于云南,云南咖啡在花果及甜香风味方面有所欠缺,而发酵是影响咖啡风味品质的重要因素之一。利用酵母菌在低温厌氧条件下发酵咖啡鲜果,添加香草、肉桂、热带水果、蜂蜜等原料为基底共同发酵,最终对发酵咖啡豆理化、香气成分及杯测分析,探究共酵对咖啡品质的影响。结果表明,添加香料、苹果、甜橙、香蕉、蜂蜜共酵的咖啡与对照组无添加咖啡相比,灰分和脂肪含量无差异(p>0.05),可溶性蛋白含量显著提高(p<0.05),底物的添加对最终咖啡豆中多糖、还原糖、总蛋白、多酚具有不同显著和不显著的影响,无明显规律。采用气相色谱-离子迁移对香气进行分析共初步定性出36种化合物,9种酯、6种酮、8种醛、6种醇、5种烯萜、1种呋喃、1种酸类及17个未知信号成分。咖啡生豆中酮、醛、醇、酯类共占挥发性成分的60%以上。结合杯测结果香料、水果与咖啡共酵可赋予咖啡水果香气,提升咖啡花果香特质,其中香草肉桂、甜橙组杯测达精品咖啡标准,香蕉组香气较为突出。蜂蜜与咖啡共酵在香气方面未有突出特点,且被测酸质较差对甜度提升不足。本研究为进一步改善云南咖啡花果甜香特质,提升咖啡风味提供一定理论依据和数据支持。

    Abstract:

    Chinese coffee is mainly produced in Yunnan, Yunnan coffee is lacking in flower and fruit flavor, and fermentation is one of the important factors affecting the quality of coffee flavor. Using yeast to ferment coffee fresh fruit under low temperature anaerobic conditions, adding vanilla, cinnamon, tropical fruit, honey and other raw materials as the base for co-fermentation, and finally analyzing the physicochemical, aroma components and cup measurement of fermented coffee beans, and exploring the effects of co-fermentation on the quality of coffee. The results showed that the coffee added with spices, apple, orange, banana and honey had no difference in ash and fat content (p>0.05) and soluble protein content (p<0.05). The addition of the substrate has different significant and insignificant effects on the polysaccharide, reducing sugar, total protein and polyphenol in the final coffee bean, and there is no obvious rule. Aroma analysis by gas chromatography-ion migration preliminary identified a total of 36 compounds, 9 esters, 6 ketones, 8 aldehydes, 6 alcohols, 5 olefins, 1 furan, 1 acid and 17 unknown signal components. The ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and esters of coffee green beans account for more than 60% of the volatile components. Combined with the cup test results, the co-fermentation of spices, fruits and coffee can impart coffee fruit aroma and enhance the coffee flower fruit characteristics. Among them, the vanilla cinnamon and sweet orange group cups have reached the standard of fine coffee, and the banana group aroma is more prominent. The co-fermentation of honey and coffee has no outstanding features in terms of aroma, and the poor acidity measured indicates insufficient improvement in sweetness. This study provides a theoretical basis and data support for further improving the sweet and fragrant characteristics of Yunnan coffee and fruit and improving the flavor of coffee.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-11-11
  • 最后修改日期:2020-03-03
  • 录用日期:2020-03-12
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